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Abstract

Differences in water absorption by intact seeds and in osmotic properties of excised seed coats were measured in 4 near-isogenic breeding lines of snap bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L. White seeds absorbed water more rapidly than colored seeds. Excised white seed coats were more permeable to water than colored seed coats in response to an osmotic gradient. Seed coat thickness and seed coat dry weight were negatively correlated with rate of osmosis through the seed coats. Colored seeds had greater seed coat dry weight and thickness than white-seeded isolines.

Open Access

Abstract

A Hunter Color Difference meter and a white-paint color chart were used to determine the degree of whiteness among 8 white-seeded Great Northern (GN) cultivars of Phaseolus vulgaris. A correlation coefficient of +0.84 was found between the 2 methods. The former method provided better separation of cultivars for degrees of whiteness than the latter method. Two genetic studies were conducted, with seed-coat whiteness determined by use of the white-paint color strip. ‘GN Emerson’ had the whitest seed-coat. The inheritance of seed-coat whiteness was investigated in 1978 using parents, F2s of the crosses Plant Introduction (PI) 165078 (bright white) with ‘GN Emerson’ (moderately bright white), ‘GN Valley’ (dull white) and ‘GN UI 59’ (dull white) and in the reciprocal cross ‘Bulgarian White’ (brightest white) × ‘GN UI 59’ (dull white). A quantitative pattern of inheritance was observed. Broad sense heritability estimates for this trait ranged from 46 to 57%. The Gardner and Eberhart model, Analysis II, was used in 1979 to estimate genetic effects for the trait in a 6 parent diallel cross involving ‘GN Emerson’, ‘GN UI 59’, ‘Bulgarian White’, ‘GN Star’ (dull white), ‘GN 1140’ (dull white) and ‘GN D-88’ (dull white). Additive genetic effects were predominant; but heterosis effects were also important, including significant effects for specific combining ability, and reciprocal crosses. ‘Bulgarian White’ showed high combining ability for brighter whiteness. The genetic data indicate that improvement of seed-coat whiteness in dry beans should be relatively easy to accomplish.

Open Access

Abstract

Seed-coat cracking injury was determined in Great Northern (GN) dry bean lines in 1977, 1978 (also Pintos in 1978) using 3 methods as follows: Vogel small plot thresher (field), seed dropping, and a controlled rotating impact disk machine. Differences in susceptibility for seed-coat cracking were observed within each testing method. Overall, ‘GN Emerson’, near-isogenic determinate ‘GN Nebraska #1’ and ‘Pinto UI 111’ had the best resistance to seed-coat cracking. A genotype × year interaction for seed injury occurred with the Vogel thresher but not with the other 2 methods. The other 2 methods gave consistent results but the rotating disk machine method was preferred because of ease, rapidity of operation and standardization of the rotation speed. The early and late maturing determinate near-isogenic lines of ‘GN Nebraska #1’ had less seed-coat injury than the early and late indeterminate lines using the Vogel and rotating impact disk method. The early determinate line had the least amount of seed-coat injury for all three methods. ‘Pinto UI 111’, ‘Bulgarian White’, and ‘GN D-88’, which exhibited the best resistance to seed-coat cracking in the 7 parent diallel crossing study, had the most uniform seed-coat thickness as well as having thick seed coats. The cultivars which had thin or thick but non-uniformly thick seed coats were susceptible to seed-coat cracking. Differences in thickness in macrosclerid, os-teosclerid and parenchyma cell layers of the seed coat were observed between cultivars, but no relationship between these cell layers and the seed-coat cracking response was established. Seed-coat cracking was quantitatively inherited. ‘Bulgarian White’, ‘Pinto UI 111’ and ‘GN D-88’ showed high combining ability for resistance to seed-coat cracking. The estimates of the genetic effects indicated that additive effects were mainly involved.

Open Access
Authors: and

The white-seeded snap bean `Early Wax' (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) was crossed with a black-seeded breeding line 5-593. The F2 segregation data are consistent with a three-gene model, in which all three genes must be homozygous recessive to give white seed coat. One of the genes is t because of segregation in F2 for plants with white flowers and partial seed coat coloration. We hypothesize that the genes ers and ers2 in the presence of f block all seed color expression in all genes for partial coloration of seed. The hypothesis of three recessive genes was confirmed in a backcross test involving `Early Wax' x F1. The interaction of ers and ers2 was tested in progeny tests of partly colored BC-F1 plants. One of the erasure genes, ers2, blocks color expression in color zones close to the hilum, but only in the presence of ers. The other erasure gene, ers, blocks color expression only in color zones beyond those close to the hilum in a manner similar to the restr locus of Prakken (1972). The old hypothesis that partly colored seed phenotypes require the presence of a second factor e in addition to t, where the function of e is vague and unspecified, should be discarded for lack of supporting evidence, Under the new hypothesis, soldier series phenotypes (e.g., bipunctata, arcus, virgata, and virgarcus) may express in t ers Ers2 by action of ers or in t Ers Ers2 by action of various genes for partly colored seeds other than ers.

Free access
Authors: and

Abstract

Fungal and fire treatments were applied to seeds of Albizia julibrissin to simulate natural mechanisms of seed coat scarification. Seeds in unsterilized soil which contained natural microorganisms resulted in increased germination compared to seeds in sterilized media. Germination in cultures of Rhizoctonia, Fusarium, and Pythium indicated Rhizoctonia was most effective as a seed scarifier. Fire treatment at 1, 3, 5, and 10 seconds indicate that 1 second enhanced seed germination. Scanning electron micrographs of treated seed indicated that fungal hyphae alters the surface of the macrosclereid cells which may allow for imbibition of water. Seeds sub-jected to fire had large cracks in the macrosclereid layer.

Open Access

Abstract

Lines and cultivars resistant to mechanical damage with white and colored seeds germinated 60–80% compared to under 20% for several major cultivars. Seed damage resistance was associated with transverse cotyledon cracking (TVC) resistance, r = .649, seed coat shattering (SH) resistance, r = .488, and seed coat weight, r = .373. The SH test indicates whether the seed coat is tightly or loosely adhered to the cotyledons. If % seed coat as a proportion of seed weight exceeded 10% and TVC and SH were under 10%, then damage resistance was almost always good. Weakness in any one character resulted in damage susceptibility. Damage resistant lines produced more vigorous seedlings than susceptible lines following seed maltreatment. Damage resistance was correlated, r = .722, with seedling vigor following seed impaction.

Open Access

Abstract

Seed germination was 90–95% for Kentucky coffeetree [Gymnocladus dioicus (L.) C. Koch] after concentrated sulfuric acid treatment for 120 to 150 minutes; 97–98% for honeylocust (Gleditsia triacanthos va. inermis L.) following 60, 90, or 120 minutes concentrated sulfuric acid scarification; and was 67–72% for redbud (Cercis canadensis L.) after 30, 60, or 90 minutes of concentrated sulfuric acid scarification followed by a 60-day stratification period. Scanning electron micrographs of acid-scarified Kentucky coffeetree, honeylocust, and redbud seed indicated that lumens of the macrosclereid cells on the seed surface were exposed after acid treatment, permitting imbibition of water. Boiling water treatment ruptured the macrosclerid layer, while seed treated with liquid N2 had fissures that did not appear to penetrate the macrosclereid layer.

Open Access

. Zuechter . 33 : 323 – 337 . https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00709191 . Demonsais L , Utz‐Pugin A , Loubery S , Lopez‐Molina L . 2020 . Identification of tannic cell walls at the outer surface of the endosperm upon Arabidopsis seed coat rupture

Open Access

Abstract

Cold requirement for germination of excised ‘Kakamas’ peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) embryos was satisfied after 2 weeks at 4.4°C; embryos with testas intact required 4 weeks, while seeds with intact endocarps required 12 weeks stratification. Leaching of unstratified excised embryos stimulated germination. The endocarp affected germination by delaying water uptake. Supplying additional O2 during stratification or germination of seeds with intact endocarps did not improve germination. Cracking the endocarps stimulated germination of stratified seeds, but sealing the cracks with lanolin paste prevented this effect. The endocarps may interfere with the leaching of inhibitors from the testa and embryo. Initial seedling growth of embryos with or without testas increased linearly with increasing time of stratification in terms of shoot length, dry weight of shoots and leaves, dry weight of roots and leaf area, length and width. Seedlings arising from embryos with intact testas were taller and had a greater dry mass of shoots, leaves and roots compared to seedlings arising from embryos without testas.

Open Access

Abstract

During imbibition, water always follows the same pattern when entering the seed testa in semihard seeds (SHS) of snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Water first enters the raphe and the chalazal region of the testa (R-CT), then migrates circumferentially along the midline of the seed, leaving the lateral faces the last to be fully imbibed. The R-CT region is the main site of primary uptake of both water vapor and liquid water by SHS. The hilum, micropyle, and strophiole play only a minor role in water uptake in SHS. In comparison to the readily permeable seeds of ‘Bush Blue Lake 47’, SHS have more total phenols in the osteosclereid cells and more pectic substances in the palisade cells of the CT. The presence of these compounds may account for the impermeable nature of SHS. Measurements made of palisade cell length and width in the R-CT region revealed that cell length increased and width decreased in the chalazal testa region (CT) as seed moisture content increased from 6% to 12%. It is proposed that semihardening of bean seeds is mainly a result of the reversible physical changes in the length and width of the palisade cells in the R-CT region. Seeds imbibe at high moisture content (12%) because the palisade cells have stretched, which allows water uptake. Seeds are impermeable at low moisture content (6%) because the palisade cells change in size and form a physical barrier to water movement.

Open Access