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David H. Suchoff, Christopher C. Gunter, and Frank J. Louws

The efficacy of herbaceous grafts relies on the replacement of a scion root system with that of a rootstock with known disease resistance. The use of disease-resistant rootstocks in grafted tomato production has proven efficacious in managing

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Michael A. Arnold

122 WORKSHOP 16 Quality and Management of Tree Root Systems: Current Status and Future Directions

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Karen Mitchell, Elizabeth French, Janna Beckerman, Anjali Iyer-Pascuzzi, Jeff Volenec, and Kevin Gibson

. However, the root systems in the split-pattern rhizoboxes were cut down the center with a straight blade before the roots were removed. Roots were gently washed in DI water and dried at 60 °C to a constant weight. Root images were analyzed using ImageJ 1

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Taryn L. Bauerle, William L. Bauerle, Marc Goebel, and David M. Barnard

root system development affects water extraction patterns ( Andreu et al., 1997 ; Coelho and Or, 1999 ; Daniels et al., 2012 ). Consequently, the influence of root development on containerized substrate moisture variation, which is known to influence

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Junyang Song

Lilies ( Lilium sp.), a world-famous flowering plant belonging to the Liliaceae Lilium , have a very high ornamental value and occupy an important position in the international flower industry ( Suh et al., 2013 ). The root system serves as a

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Matthew B. Bertucci, David H. Suchoff, Katherine M. Jennings, David W. Monks, Christopher C. Gunter, Jonathan R. Schultheis, and Frank J. Louws

). Research has focused on cucurbit rootstock root system physiology to help explain this improved tolerance; however, research has only been conducted with figleaf gourd ( Cucurbita ficifolia ) and is limited to suboptimal soil temperatures ( Lee et al., 2005

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Thomas E. Marler and Haluk M. Discekici

Excavation of field-grown `Red Lady' and `Tainung #2' papaya plants was begun 3 months after transplanting to the field to characterize development of the papaya root system. The roots were separated into the taproot system and lateral roots within three size categories: <1, 1 to 5, and >5 mm. Length of the taproot system and the larger lateral roots was measured directly, and that of the smaller roots was determined using the line-intersect method. Mass of the various size categories was measured after drying at 70°C. A typical plant 3 months after field-planting was ≈ 60 cm tall and exhibited a root system radial spread of 34,636 cm2, total root length of 9613 cm, and total dry mass of 17.3 g. The taproot system accounted for >70% of the mass and <5% of the length of the root system. Lateral roots <1 mm in diameter accounted for <10% of the mass and >70% of the length of the root system. A typical plant during the heavy fruit set stage, about 6 months after field planting, was 175 cm tall and exhibited a root system radial spread of 101,736 cm2, total root length of 975 m, and total dry mass of 539 g. The taproot system accounted for ≈38% of the dry mass and <1% of the length of the root system. Lateral roots <1 mm in diameter accounted for ≈5% of the dry mass and 65% of the length of the root system. Plant age influenced root system characteristics more than cultivar, especially the proportional distribution of mass and length among the defined root classes.

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Ana Fita, Belén Picó, Antonio J. Monforte, and Fernando Nuez

The root system plays a very important role in plant development. A root system that is strong, healthy, and has an adequate architecture for the environment in which it develops provides numerous benefits to the plant, such as a greater capacity

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Karla Gabrielle Dutra Pinto, Sônia Maria Figueiredo Albertino, Bruna Nogueira Leite, Daniel Oscar Pereira Soares, Francisco Martins de Castro, Laís Alves da Gama, Débora Clivati, and André Luiz Atroch

exogenous auxin is useful for this purpose. We showed that no dose of IBA increased the rooting percentage; however, some doses increased the root system quality of the guarana plant cuttings. This is suitable for guarana seedling production by Amazonian

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Silvana Nicola

Root architecture can be very important in plant productivity. The importance of studies on root morphology and development is discussed to improve seedling growth. Root systems of dicotyledonous species are reviewed, with emphasis on differences between growth of basal and lateral roots. The presence of different types of roots in plant species suggests possible differences in function as well. The architecture of a root system related to its functions is considered. Classical methods for studying root systems comprise excavation of root system, direct observation, and indirect analyses. While the first method is destructive and the third is effective in understanding root architecture only on a relatively gross scale, observation methods allow the scientist a complete a nondestructive architectural study of a root system. The three groups are reviewed related to their potential to give valuable information related to the root architecture and development of the seedling, with emphasis on the availability of a medium-transparent plant-growing system, enabling nondestructive daily observations and plant measurements under controlled environmental conditions. Effects of CO2 enrichment on seedling growth is reviewed, emphasizing the effects of CO2 on root growth.