( Lurie et al., 2013 ). In addition, the variability in the time of ripening of fruit located in different positions of the canopy affects fruit quality ( Crisosto et al., 1997 ; Farina et al., 2005 ) because fruit are exposed to unequal conditions of
Catalina Pinto, Gabino Reginato, Karen Mesa, Paulina Shinya, Mariana Díaz, and Rodrigo Infante
Muttalip Gündoğdu, Tuncay Kan, and Mustafa Kenan Gecer
plant species indicated that level of carotenoids varies significantly according to the stage of ripening. During ripening of tomato fruit, there is a remarkable accumulation of carotenoids of which lycopene represents ≈90% of the total ( Fraser et al
Masahiko Fumuro and Naoki Sakurai
. Given that the ‘Irwin’ fruit exhibits the characteristic natural fruit drop from the bearing branch with ripening, farmers cover the fruit with a bag-shaped net and harvest those that drop into the net. Fruits harvested in this way at the full-ripe stage
Chikako Honda, Hideo Bessho, Mari Murai, Hiroshi Iwanami, Shigeki Moriya, Kazuyuki Abe, Masato Wada, Yuki Moriya-Tanaka, Hiroko Hayama, and Miho Tatsuki
; Faragher, 1983 ; Marais et al., 2001 ). However, because the experimental conditions differed among the respective reports, comparing their results is difficult. Ethylene is a key plant hormone involved in fruit ripening in apples ( Saure, 1990 ). Whale
Dominique Lacan and J.C. Baccou
Respiration, C2H4 production, lipid composition, and electrolyte leakage were monitored during ripening of two nonnetted muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) varieties differing in their storage life: `Clipper' (a long-storage-life variety) and `Jerac', which was used as a control. Respiration rates were comparable in both varieties. Although `Jerac' exhibited normal climacteric C2H4 production, `Clipper' continued to produce significant amounts of C2H4 until senescence. Electrolyte leakage increased with ripening and was always higher in `Jerac'. The loss of membrane integrity seems to be related to changes in the lipid composition due to a breakdown of phospholipids, an increase of sterol synthesis, and an increase in fatty acid saturation. On the contrary, in `Clipper', the absence of a major change in sterol and phospholipids content and the high level of fatty acid unsaturation suggest that membrane permeability is not greatly affected during ripening. This is consistent with the low loss of solutes measured and may delay senescence in `Clipper' fruit.
D. Gerasopoulos and D.G. Richardson
Pear trees (Pyrus communis L.), cv. d'Anjou, received foliar applications of X-77 surfactant and 32.3 mm CaCl2 at 55, 85, 125, and 137 days after full bloom (DAFB) and fruit were harvested at 147 DAFB. Samples of fruit were stored in air either at 20 °C continuously or at 5 or 10 °C for several periods, then transferred to 20 °C, to determine the effects of storage temperature and CaCl2 treatments on the development of the ethylene climacteric and flesh firmness loss. Control fruits held continuously at 20 °C required 70 days for the onset of climacteric ethylene production, which commenced when firmness had decreased to ≈20 N. Calcium-sprayed fruit required 80 days at 20 °C before the rise in ethylene and resisted softening for ≈50 days. Regardless of calcium treatment, pears stored at 5 or 10 °C required only 40 days to produce climacteric ethylene; fruit softening and internal ethylene concentration after storage at 10 °C were intermediate between those of fruits stored at 5 and 20 °C. Calcium application did not alter the sequence of ripening events.
R. Porat, B. Weiss, I. Zipori, and A. Dag
acceptable in marketing chains. The changes that occur during ripening include rapid softening, external color change from green to yellow, and metabolic changes in biochemical composition ( Bashir and Abu-Goukh, 2003 ; Brown and Wills, 1983 ; Jain et al
Takashi Sato, Tsuyoshi Kudo, Tomoko Akada, Yuhya Wakasa, Minoru Niizeki, and Takeo Harada
The onset of apple [Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. Var. domestica (Borkh.)Mansf.] fruit maturity is preceded by the production of ethylene, the ripening hormone, which induces fruit ripening. The amount of ethylene produced by the fruit correlates with the level of transcription of the ripening-specific 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase genes. We have found that an allele (MdACS1-2), which contains an inserted retroposon-like sequence at the 5'-flanking region, is transcribed at a lower level than the wild-type (MdACS1-1). MdACS1-2/2 homozygous fruit produce a lower level of ethylene at the climacteric stage than do the wild type fruit. We have also found that the preharvest drop rates of apple cultivars and strains of MdACS1-2/2 trees have less fruit drop than the MdACS1-1/1 or MdACS1-1/2 trees. Treatment of the MdACS1-1/2 trees with 1-MCP, an ethylene receptor blocker, further decreased fruit drop. Analysis of commercial apple cultivars for the presence of the MdACS1-2/2 allele may help in the early detection of apple cultivars with a low fruit drop rate.
Brandon M. Hurr, Donald J. Huber, and James H. Lee
In this study, ripening characteristics, including color change and softening, were determined for tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum `Florida 47') fruit at immature-green through light red stages of development and subsequently treated with 1 μL·L–1 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). Special attention was directed at comparing the responses of immature and mature-green fruit. Surface color and whole fruit firmness were measured every other day. 1-MCP delayed or slowed color changes and softening in fruit of every maturity class, with differences between control and treated fruit evident immediately following 1-MCP application for 24 h at 20 °C. Fruit treated with 1-MCP at early maturity stages (immature-green, mature-green, and breaker) exhibited an extended delay in external red pigment accumulation compared with control fruit. Fruit of all maturity classes developed acceptable final hue values (hue angle ≤55°), and the time required to reach these values declined with advancing fruit maturity. Immature-green fruit treated with 1-MCP did not attain an acceptable degree of softening during the specified storage periods examined before deteriorating due to shriveling and pathogen proliferation. 1-MCP-treated mature-green and breaker stage fruit did recover to acceptable firmness (5–10 N) and hue values but exhibited a severely reduced storage life thereafter compared with untreated fruit of equal maturity. Fruit at turning and more advanced stages exhibited reduced rates of softening and color development when treated with 1-MCP, yet they attained firmness and color values within the range of acceptability for commercial use. Fruit treated with 1-MCP at pink and light-red stages of ripening developed normal external color and exhibited significantly extended postharvest life due largely to a significant retention in firmness when compared to control fruit. Based on the studies described for `Florida 47' tomato fruit, 1-MCP would appear to be of little benefit and possibly detrimental if applied to early maturity fruit, most notably greens and breakers, due to irreversible limitations in the capacity of these fruit to soften to acceptable values. In sharp contrast, more advanced stage fruit, particularly pink and light red, responded to 1-MCP with significantly extended shelf-life due to retention of firmness.
G. Martínez, M.T. Pretel, M. Serrano, and F. Riquelme
Resistance (R) to preloaded gas diffusion was used to follow the evolution of R during cherimoya fruit maturation and senescence. Cherimoya ethane diffusion was linear and gave an R value of 2048 ± 167 s·cm-1 for preclimacteric fruit. R increased linearly during maturation, and significant differences were noted between fruit in which diffusion through the stem scar was or was not blocked with petroleum ielly.