Eaton, 1986 ; Strik et al., 1991 ). However, recently released cultivars are reputed to exhibit extensive return bloom ( Roper, 2006 ). Return bloom occurs when a fruiting upright develops a mixed bud, thereby circumventing biennial bearing. Much of the
Leaf number, area and chlorophyll content, and specific leaf weight were greater in light-exposed spurs of ‘Hartley’ walnut (Juglans regia L.) than those grown in the shade. Starch content increased early in the season in shaded spurs, but the accumulation ceased while the nuts stored dry matter. In exposed spurs, starch increased steadily until harvest. After harvest, starch level decreased in exposed and shaded spurs. Light intensity did not affect percentage composition of spurs and fruit with respect to carbohydrates or oil content in kernels. Increased exposure to light resulted in higher percentage of return bloom, greater spur growth, and more pistillate flowers per spur the following season.
Fruit size and return bloom of apple (Malus domestica Brokh.) were examined in 1982-84 under varying levels of crop load and stress caused by the European red mite [Panonychus ulmi (Koch)]. Trees of ‘Rome Beauty’/MM.111 and ‘Yorking’ M.26 were subjected to two and three levels of mite stress, respectively, over a range of leaf : fruit ratios (LFRs). Regression models were used to explore the effect of LFR on fruit size and return bloom at the various mite injury levels. There was a curvilinear relationship between mean fruit weight and LFR for most of the check and mite-injured groups. The relationship between bloom density and LFR was linear over the range studied. Both experiments indicated reduced fruit size and return bloom with moderate to high mite damage, regardless of LFR.
Several experiments were conducted to evaluate the influence of time, concentration, and number of GA4+7 applications on ‘McIntosh’, ‘Early McIntosh’, and ‘Empire’ apples (Malus domestica Borkh.). GA4+7 at 150 mg·liter−1 increased fruit set and inhibited flower bud formation on ‘McIntosh’ and ‘Early McIntosh’. Flower bud formation was inhibited on ‘McIntosh’ when GA4+7 was applied over a wide range of times from 6 days before full bloom to 34 to 35 days after full bloom. Applications made 45 and 60 days after full bloom had no effect. Following storage, ‘Empire’ fruit treated with GA4+7 were softer and had a higher incidence of senescent breakdown than controls. Postbloom sprays of GA4+7 increased fruit set on ‘Empire’ one year when applied from 0 to 150 mg·liter−1, while two applications of 50 mg·liter−1 on similar trees in another year caused thinning. GA4+7 sprays appeared to advance ripening of ‘Empire’ apples. Gibberellin sprays reduced seed number. GA4+7 inhibited flowering in ‘Empire’. Repeat applications 19 and 34 days after full bloom were only slightly more inhibitory to flowering than one application of 0, 50, 100, or 150 mg·liter−1 made 10 days after full bloom.
Fruit on shoots trained to grow above the main foliar canopy (exposed) of 6-year-old ‘pergola’-trained kiwifruit vines were significantly larger than fruit on shoots trained to grow below the canopy (shaded). Fruit size increased with seed number in both fruit groups, but fruit from exposed shoots were consistently larger than shade-grown fruit with the same seed count. Shade-grown shoots had smaller basal diameters and less dry matter than exposed shoots. Winter mortality among buds on formerly shaded and exposed shoots was 34% and 5%, respectively. Formerly shaded shoots had fewer mixed buds with less flowers per inflorescence than exposed shoots the following spring.
Combination postbloom sprays of BA at 50 mg·liter-1 and daminozide at 2000 mg·liter-1 were made to limbs of `Early McIntosh' apple (Malus domestics Borkh.) where all of the flowers were either removed before full bloom or allowed to remain. BA and fruit removal increased return bloom, whereas daminozide bad no effect. No treatment had a consistent effect on spur leaf area. Repeat sprays of GA4+7 to `Delicious' apple trees at full bloom (FB) +5, FB + 14, and FB +22 days reduced appendage development and flower bud formation on spurs. One spray of GAd+7 at 150 mg·liter-1 at FB +42 days reduced appendage formation and the percentage of flowering spurs but not as effectively as earlier repeat sprays of GA4+7 at 50 mg·liter-1 When BA at 150 mg·liter-1 was combined with the GA at FB +42 days, appendage formation was increased but the reduction in flowering was not reversed. One BA spray at 50 mg·liter-1 at FB +22 days to `McIntosh' trees increased the number of appendages formed in spurs, but return bloom was not influenced. Chemical names used: (N -phenylmethyl) -1 H -purine-6-amine (BA); butanedioic acid mono (2, 2-dimethylhydrazide) (daminozide); gibberellins A4 and A7 (GA4+7).
Vegetative and fruiting shoots were tagged in Oct. 1982 and 1983 on ‘Squirrel’, ‘Stuart’, and ‘Cape Fear’ pecan trees [Carya illinoensis (Wangenh) C. Koch], and flowering was determined the following years. One-year-old shoots were sampled from vegetative and fruiting shoots of each cultivar on 14 Oct. 1982, 9 Feb., 11 Apr., 14 Oct., and 24 Nov. 1983, and 6 Jan. and 17 Apr. 1984 and analyzed for reducing and nonreducing sugars and starch concentrations. Fruiting reduced return bloom of ‘Cape Fear’ in 1983 and 1984, and ‘Stuart’ in 1983. Sugar and starch concentrations varied inversely. Sugar concentrations were increased in November, January, and February, and starch concentrations were greatest during October and April. The total carbohydrate concentration in fruiting shoots of each cultivar was greater or equal to that of vegetative shoots in all but one instance. The degree of return fruiting was positively associated with cultivars with early fruit ripening dates.
effective at promoting return bloom than later thinning as practiced here ( Tromp, 2000 ). Two major flower formation inhibitors have been previously described in apple: GAs ( Marino and Greene 1981 ; McArtney and Li, 1998 ; McLaughlin and Greene, 1984
Postbloom sprays of BA thinned `McIntosh', `Delicious', `Golden Delicious', `Mutsu, `Empire', and `Abas' apples. BA at 75 to 100 mg·liter-1 was equal to NAA at 6 to 7.5 mg·liter-1 or carbaryl at 600 to 800 mg·liter-1. BA increased fruit size, flesh firmness, and soluble solids concentration (SSC) on all cultivars evaluated. Since BA is applied during the time when cell division is occurring, it is concluded that the increased fruit size and flesh firmness were due to Increased cell numbers. Increased SSC was not due solely to increased leaf: fruit ratio. Thinning with BA was additive with other chemical thinners and no interactions were found on fruit abscission. In most eases, BA increased return bloom. Chemical names used: N-(phenylmethyl)1H-purine-6-amine [benzyladenine (BA)]; 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA); 1-naphthalenyl methylcarbamate (carbaryl); butanedioic acid mono(2,2dimethylhydrazide (daminozide); (2-chloroethyl)phosphonic acid (ethephon).
same orchard ( Davis 1957 ). Previous research has shown that the previous year’s crop in perennial fruit tree species can play a central role in return bloom at the spur level and allowing for resting (nonfruiting) spurs may help to ensure return bloom