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John Clemens and R. Hugh Morton

Containerized plants of Heliconia psittacorum L.f. × H. spathocircinata Aristeguieta `Golden Torch' were grown in a greenhouse for 8 months from early summer to winter under selected combinations of N, P, and K. Fertilizer rates ranged from zero to rates that exceeded those reported in the literature by 50% to 100%. Biomass variables (vegetative and inflorescence dry weight, and leaf area) were predicted to be maximized at high N and high N to P, and N to K ratios corresponding to N-P-K application rates of 1.2, 0.5, and 0.6 kg·m-3, respectively (≈2:1:1). However, the number of shoots and flowers produced per rhizome were maximal at lower N to K ratios (1:1). Flower yield could therefore be optimized with appropriate fertilization, provided attention was paid to the N to K ratio so that the size of plants and their flowers was not compromised by efforts to increase shoot and flower number. The heavier the rhizome planted, the shorter the time for shoot emergence and flowering to occur, and the greater the number of flowers harvested. However, rhizome weight had no effect on number of shoots to emerge. The probability of shoots flowering declined markedly with order of shoot emergence, although this could be increased with appropriate mineral nutrition. The maximum number of leaves subtending the inflorescence (seven) was obtained at high N and P rates. Flower production was probably limited by declining solar radiation in autumn, and by within-plant competition for rooting space.

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Jacob George, Harsh Pal Bais, G.A. Ravishankar and P. Manilal

Response surface methodology was utilized in statistical optimization of three quality factors (the number of multiple shoots, shoot length, and number of leaves) pertaining to regeneration of plantlets from leaf calli of Decalepis hamiltonii Wight. & Arn. (swallow root). The variables evaluated were the levels of sucrose, BA, and NAA each at two different concentrations. Response surfaces for shoot length and multiple shoot number were useful in achieving optimal levels of media constituents and in understanding their interactions, but response surfaces for number of leaves were not. The data indicate that sucrose, BA, and NAA levels may be manipulated to increase or decrease quality factors chosen. This approach may be useful in developing a micropropagation protocol for D. hamiltonii. Chemical names used: benzyladenine (BA); napthaleneacetic acid (NAA).

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Rizwan Maqbool, David Percival, Qamar Zaman, Tess Astatkie, Sina Adl and Deborah Buszard

the second objective was to recommend fertilizer rates that optimize these same factors. We chose to use response surface methodology and canonical analysis as aids in modeling and examining the relationships between fertilizer rates and plant

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Le Luo, Yichi Zhang, Yingnan Wang, Tangren Cheng, Huitang Pan, Jia Wang and Qixiang Zhang

surface methodology for laccase production by Peniophora sp. hpF04 J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2 46 56 Sun, Y.L. Mu, C.H. Chen, Y. Kong, X.P. Xu, Y.C. Zheng, H.X. Zhang, H. Wang, Q.C. Xue, Y.F. Li, Z.X. 2016 Comparative transcript profiling of maize

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Xia Chun-hua and Chen Jian-hua

Anthurium andraeanum Lind. is an economically important potted and fresh-cut flower species. However, reduced anthocyanin content under shaded cultivation impacts the color of the spathe, which has negative implications for the marketability of A. andraeanum. Thus, the present study evaluates the use of oyster shell supplementation to the cultivation medium for improving anthocyanin content. Appropriate calcium (Ca) can improve the activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), and PAL activity is positively correlated with anthocyanin content; nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) nutrients are closely related to anthocyanin synthesis. N and P nutrients and Ca can alleviate the color symptoms of A. andraeanum when anthocyanin content decreases under weak light (under 220 μmol·m−2·s−1). Microdissolution of calcium carbonate, the main component of oyster shell, can provide better exogenous Ca and adsorb slow-release N and P. Selecting appropriate oyster shell fragments will be the key to A. andraeanum experimental cultivation under low light conditions. Using regression models and response surface methodology (RSM), the relationships between oyster shell fragments and anthocyanin content are promulgated. The main findings indicated that the Ca released from 286-mg oyster shell fragments at pH 5.5 significantly increased the activity of PAL in the pedicel under weak light within 8 hours. At pH 5.9, 375-mg oyster shell fragments could significantly adsorb N and P nutrients within 4 to 14 hours. In conclusion, 286 to 375 mg oyster shell fragments at pH 5.5 to 5.9 could stabilize slow-release fertilizer source and significantly increase anthocyanin content in A. andraeanum spathe.

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Maedza K. Vuwani, Mpumelelo Nkomo, Wonder Ngezimana, Nokwanda P. Makunga and Fhatuwani N. Mudau

. 2013 Optimisation of kaffir lime leaves ( Citrus hystrix ) volatile oil extraction by pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) using response surface methodology (RSM). Universiti Teknologi MARA, PhD Diss Haukioja, E. Ossipov, V. Koricheva, J. Honkanen, T

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Satoru Motoki, Tianli Tang, Takumi Taguchi, Ayaka Kato, Hiromi Ikeura and Tomoo Maeda

.S. Kennedy, J.F. Wang, X.D. Yuan, X.F. Zhao, B. Peng, Y.S. Huang, Y.X. 2011 Optimization of ultrasonic circulating extraction of polysaccharides from Asparagus officinalis using response surface methodology Intl. J. Biol. Macromol. 49 181 187

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Isaac Zipori, Arnon Dag, Yizhar Tugendhaft and Reuven Birger

Acta Hort. 824 337 348 Segovia-Bravo, K.A. Garcia-Garcia, P. Lopez-Lopez, A. Garrido-Fernandez, A. 2012 Effect of inert atmosphere on postharvest browning of Manzanilla olives and optimization by response surface methodology of the aqueous treatments J

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Jiaqi Yan, Megan M. Dewdney, Pamela D. Roberts and Mark A. Ritenour

371 378 Nevarez, L. Vasseur, V. Debaets, S. Barbier, G. 2010 Use of response surface methodology to optimize environmental stress conditions on Penicillium glabrum , a food spoilage mould Fungal Biol. 114 490 497 Paul, I. van Jaarsveld, A.S. Korsten

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Anna Marín, Anne Plotto, Lorena Atarés and Amparo Chiralt

as biocontrol agents in plants Biocontrol Sci. Technol. 26 1451 1470 Ghafoor, K. Park, J. Choi, Y. 2010 Optimization of supercritical fluid extraction of bioactive compounds from grape ( Vitis labrusca B.) peel by using response surface methodology