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The recommended daily light integral (DLI) to produce high-quality young annual bedding plants (plugs) is 10 to 12 mol·m −2 ·d −1 ( Lopez and Runkle 2008 ; Pramuk and Runkle 2005 ). However, plug production often begins in midwinter to early

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major limitation to the increased use of zoysiagrass. Zoysiagrass establishment by plugs or sprigs can take up to 2 years, or longer, to reach complete coverage ( Hume and Freyre, 1950 ; Sifers et al., 1992a , 1992b ). Delayed establishment may

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A low natural DLI in winter at northern latitudes in North America often necessitates the use of supplemental electric lighting to produce high-quality young annual bedding plants (plugs) in commercial greenhouses ( Poel and Runkle 2017

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to the exclusion of other products or vendors that may be suitable. We gratefully acknowledge the work of student interns Matthew Stevens and Emma Wallace for their assistance in plug conditioning and environmental monitoring. We thank Nihal Rajapakse

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( Hickman, 1986 ; Ahmad et al., 2014 ), and decreasing abiotic stresses ( Bañón et al., 2006 ) in ornamental potted and nursery plants. Ancymidol is also used extensively for ornamental plug production and plant growth management ( Miranda and Carlson, 1980

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Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Jet Star) seedlings grown in small cells (plugs) in trays holding 200, 406, or 648 plants per flat (28 × 55 cm) were larger after 6 weeks as cell size increased, but all were acceptable. Other seedlings, transplanted at weekly intervals from plug trays to plastic cell packs (48 cells per 28 × 55-cm flat), were of similar size during weeks 1-3; seedlings from 648-plug trays were smaller than the others by week 5-6. Seedlings from 200-plug trays planted at weekly intervals into containers where plant-plant competition was absent were larger through 6 weeks than those from 406- and 648-plug trays. Early marketable and total yields were similar for plants held in 406-plug trays 1 to 4 weeks before their transfer to 48-cell flats, but yield decreased for those held 5 to 7 weeks.

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concentrations of B and lead to the development of visual symptoms of B deficiency. Materials and Methods ‘Dynamite Yellow’ pansy, ‘White Storm’ petunia, and ‘Festival Apricot’ gerbera seeds were sown in 288-plug trays cut into 2 × 2-cell flats (each cell: 2 cm

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). Instead, practitioners recommend using plugs of prairie dropseed in restored sites (B. Carter, personal communication, 26 Aug. 2019). Using plugs in place of direct seeding was determined to be a viable way to establish species that are rare, with

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The preservation/restoration of prairie ecosystems is part of our responsibility as stewards of the earth. Success in reestablishing prairie plant communities has been quite variable and far from optimum. This cooperative project between the University of Wisconsin-River Falls (UWRF) and Carpenter Nature Center examine the use of horticulture plug technology as a means of improving the quality, availability, production efficiency and transplant survivability of herbaceous frob prairie species for use in prairie restoration efforts.

Data on growth rates and winter survival of bare-root seedlings and plug seedlings of Rudbeckia hirta, Ratibida pinnata and Zizea aurea in prairie test plots will be presented. The plug seedlings were stockier plants, had well developed root systems, and demonstrated excellent performance as transplants in prairie restoration efforts.

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mechanisms of plant growth. Materials and Methods Plant material and growth conditions. Seeds of watermelon [ Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] cv. Zaojia 84-24 were sown in 72-cell plastic plug trays (50 cm 3 per cell) filled with a substrate

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