Papaya is a large perennial plant with a rapid growth rate ( Paull and Duarte, 2011 ). In Malaysia, papaya ranks third in fruit production after durian ( Durio zibethinus ) and banana ( Musa sp.) ( Ali et al., 2010 ). The cultivar Eksotika II is a
), carambola, guava, jackfruit ( Artocarpus heterophyllus ), longan ( Nephelium longana ), lychee ( Litchi chinensis ), mamey sapote ( Pouteria sapota ), papaya, passion fruit ( Passiflora edulis , P . edulis forma flavicarpa , Passiflora hybrids), pitaya
Plant viruses are extremely difficult to manage in vegetable crops, particularly those viruses transmitted by aphids (Aphididae) in a nonpersistent manner. Viruses in the genus Potyvirus [e.g., papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), watermelon mosaic virus
The TFRUIT·Xpert and CIT·Xpert computerbased diagnostic programs can quickly assist commercial producers, extension agents, and homeowners in the diagnosis of diseases, insect pest problems and physiological disorders. The CIT·Xpert system focuses on citrus (Citrus spp.), whereas the TFRUIT·Xpert system focuses on avocado (Persea americana Mill.), carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.), lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.), mango (Mangifera indica L.), papaya (Carica papaya L.), and `Tahiti' lime (Citrus latifolia Tan.). The systems were developed in cooperation with research and extension specialists with expertise in the area of diagnosing diseases, disorders, and pest problems of citrus and tropical fruit. The systems' methodology reproduces the diagnostic reasoning process of these experts. Reviews of extension and research literature and 35-mm color slide images were completed to obtain representative information and slide images illustrative of diseases, disorders, and pest problems specific to Florida. The diagnostic programs operate under Microsoft-Windows. Full-screen color images are linked to symptoms (87 for CIT·Xpert and 167 for TFRUIT·Xpert) of diseases, disorders, and insect pest problems of citrus and tropical fruit, respectively. Users can also refer to summary documents and retrieve management information from the Univ. of Florida's Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences extension publications through hypertext links. The programs are available separately on CD-ROM and each contains over 150 digital color images of symptoms.
Yellow and zucchini squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) cultigens (breeding lines and cultivars) were evaluated over a 2-year (1995 and 1996) period in North Carolina. Yellow squash cultigens that performed well (based on total marketable yields) were `Destiny III', `Freedom III', `Multipik', XPHT 1815, and `Liberator III' in Fall 1995 and HMX 4716, `Superpik', PSX 391, `Monet', `Dixie', XPH 1780, and `Picasso' in Spring 1996. Some of the yellow squash cultigens evaluated had superior viral resistance: XPHT 1815, XPHT 1817, `Freedom III', `Destiny III', `Freedom II', TW 941121, `Prelude II', and `Liberator III' in Fall 1995 and XPHT 1815, `Liberator III', `Prelude II', and `Destiny III' in Fall 1996; all these cultigens were transgenic. The yellow squash cultigens that performed well (based on total marketable yields) in the Fall 1995 test had transgenic virus resistance (`Destiny III', `Freedom III', XPHT 1815, and `Liberator III') or had the Py gene present in its genetic background (`Multipik'). Based on total marketable yields, the best zucchini cultigens were XPHT 1800, `Tigress', XPHT 1814, `Dividend' (ZS 19), `Elite', and `Noblesse' in Fall 1995; and `Leonardo', `Tigress', `Hurricane', `Elite', and `Noblesse' in Spring 1996. The zucchini cultigens with virus resistance were TW 940966, XPHT 1814, and XPHT 1800 in Fall 1995 and XPHT 1800, XPHT 1776, XPHT 1777, XPHT 1814, and XPHT 1784 in Fall 1996. Even though TW 940966 had a high level of resistance in the Fall 1995 test, it was not as high yielding as some of the more susceptible lines. Viruses detected in the field were papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) and watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) for Fall 1995; while PRSV, zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), and WMV were detected for Fall 1996. Summer squash cultigens transgenic for WMV and ZYMV have potential to improve yield, especially during the fall when viruses are more prevalent. Most transgenic cultigens do not possess resistance to PRSV, except XPHT 1815 and XPHT 1817. Papaya ringspot virus was present in the squash tests during the fall of both years. Thus, PRSV resistance must be transferred to the transgenic cultigens before summer squash can be grown during the fall season without the risk of yield loss due to viruses.
[ Musa acuminate ( Gurav and Jadhav, 2013 )], papaya [ Carica papaya ( Morales-Pajan and Stall, 2003 )], passionfruit [ Passiflora edulis ( Morales-Pajan and Stall, 2004 )], pepper [ Capsicum annuum ( Ertani et al., 2014 )], tomato [ Solanum
; Winton and Hansen, 2001 ). Multiplex PCR was used to determine the sex of papaya ( Carica papaya ) plants ( Parasnis et al., 2000 ; Urasaki et al., 2002 ). We also tried to develop an improved, rapid, and easy method of DNA extraction from asparagus. In
personal experiences. For example, in 2016, there were two students from the United States mainland who grew up on family farms that were greater than 1000 acres (404.7 ha) each. Contrast this with the average coffee ( Coffea arabica ) or papaya ( Carica
reports for other fruits in which 1-MCP has been implicated in development of injuries ( Watkins, 2007 ). Manenoi et al. (2007) stated that gaseous 1-MCP delayed softening and skin-color development in ‘Gold’ and ‘Rainbow’ papaya ( Carica papaya ), and
for nutrient analyses. Units Literature cited Anjaneyulu, K. 2007 Diagnostic petiole nutrient norms and identification of yield limiting nutrients in papaya ( Carica papaya ) using diagnosis and recommendation integrated system Indian J. Agr. Sci. 77 3