effects of GA on apple fruit present during treatment (i.e., current season fruit). In sweet cherry ( Prunus avium ), GA 3 can delay fruit maturation ( Proebsting, 1972 ). The Pacific northwestern U.S. industry widely uses 10 to 20 mg·L −1 to increase
`Honeycrisp' apples (Malus × domestica) were harvested over 3-week periods in 2001 and 2002. Maturity and quality indices were determined at harvest. Fruit quality was evaluated after air storage [0.0 to 2.2 °C (32 to 36 °F), 95% relative humidity] for 10-13 weeks and 15-18 weeks for the 2001 and 2002 harvests, respectively. Internal ethylene concentrations (IEC), starch indices (1-8 scale), firmness and soluble solids content (SSC) did not show consistent patterns of change over time. Starch hydrolysis was advanced on all harvest dates, but it is suggested that a starch index of 7 is a useful guide for timing harvest of fruit in western New York. After storage, firmness closely followed that observed immediately after harvest, and softening during storage was slow. No change in SSC was observed during storage in either year. Incidence of bitter pit and soft scald was generally low and was not affected consistently by harvest date. The incidence of stem punctures averaged 18.5% over both years, but was not affected by harvest date. Development of stem end cracking in both years, and rot development in one year, increased with later harvest dates. A panel of storage operators, packers, growers, and fruit extension specialists evaluated the samples for appearance and eating quality after storage, and results suggested that a 2-week harvest window is optimal for `Honeycrisp' apples that are spot picked to select the most mature fruit at each harvest.
(Asclepiadaceae), preferred a relatively lower nutrient content compared with other taxa ( Sahai et al., 2010 ). A half-strength MS medium increased explant regeneration of indian ipecac by more than 20% when applied at embryo maturation compared with other
development and maturation stages have also improved melon fruit texture through turgor maintenance ( Jifon and Lester, 2009 ; Lester et al., 2006 ). In situations where soil-derived nutrients are inadequate, foliar sprays can be an effective supplement
serves as a common marker for maturation level, expressed as RI. In the studied samples, RI of ‘Castellana’ olives increased from 3.10 in the fruit harvested at middle of November to 4.40 in the fruit collected at the end of December, showing a medium
: stage I—embryo differentiation, stage II—cell expansion, and stage III—maturation drying ( Hartmann et al., 2011 ). Hartmann et al. (2011) state that at the end of stage II the seed has reached physiological maturity and can be removed from the fruit
’, variation among plants was most evident after emergence. As indicated by the presence of many outliers, variability in maturation of shoots within individual plants was greater in ‘Spotlight’ than the other cultivars. Hence, if in the future narrowing down
Chromaticity values (L*, a*, b*) of `Rome Beauty' apples (Malus domestics) were measured at weekly intervals during maturation periods in 1988 and 1989. Chromaticity was measured using a Minolta Chroma Meter CR-200b calorimeter on four quadrants of the fruit at locations midway between the stem and calyx ends. The apples continued to develop red color through the maturation period. After storage, the peel areas where chromaticity was measured were evaluated for scald intensity. The L* value at harvest was correlated positively with scald intensity, while the a* value was correlated negatively. An equation has been developed to describe the relationship between chromaticity values at harvest and scald intensity after storage.
, for the other genotypes, fall-grown fruit took 2–3 d longer to mature than spring-grown fruit. Considering year-to-year affects, seasonal replication would be needed to verify this possible trend. However, delayed maturation did not result in larger
period, with TSS increasing and TA decreasing ( Table 4 ). However, no treatment effects on fruit quality were detected in 2012 ( Table 4 ), possibly due to the more advanced maturation of the berries, the shorter observation period, or the fact that the