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Abstract

Potassium, Ca, Mg, Na, and Zn were determined in ‘Marsh’ grapefruit peel during 2 growing seasons from September through May. Peel mineral concentrations, measured as mg·g-1 fresh peel weight, were: K (2.79-3.52), Ca (0.55-0.96), Mg (0.18-0.28), Na (0.003-0.034), and Zn (0.001-0.002). Freezing temperatures resulted in higher peel concentrations for K but lower concentrations for Ca and Mg.

Open Access

cultivar trials have been set up at four NMSU agricultural science centers in New Mexico. The objective of this study was to assess the nutrient dynamics during jujube fruit maturation and the differences among cultivars for nutrient characteristics

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rich in anthocyanins, used to produce table grapes, wine, and juice, and loved by local people ( Liang et al., 2013 ; Meng et al., 2012b ). However, the maturation stage of spine grape occurs late, which affects its popularization and applications

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Abstract

Respiration rate of whole ‘Kerman’ pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) fruit increased progressively during seed growth and development and gradually declined after the completion of seed growth. Blank (seedless) fruit, on the other hand, respired at a constant rate which was 5 to 6 times lower than that of fruit with seeds. There was no indication of a climacteric peak in respiration of fruit with seeds. Ethylene evolution from seeded fruit was not significantly different from that of blank fruit. Constant low levels of ethylene were maintained throughout the period of shell and hull dehiscence, as well as fruit maturation, indicating that this hormone is probably not involved in those processes.

Open Access

Variations in the levels of volatile constituents during maturation of peaches were determined by means of capillary gas chromatography. C6 aldehydes were the major volatile compounds isolated from immature fruit, however, as the fruit matured, levels of the C6 aldehydes decreased. The final period of peach maturation (120 to 126 days after flowering) showed significant increases in benzaldehyde, linalool, γ- and δ- decalactone; γ- decalactone being the principal volatile compound. The major volatiles, sucrose, quinic acid, and the malic/citric acid ratio, either singly or in combination, appear to be useful indices for estimating maturity of peaches.

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Abstract

Morphactin in spray oil and butanol as emulsifier applied to the bark of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) trunks caused girdling effects. Treatment of ‘Thompson Seedless’ after fruit set increased berry size and treatment of ‘Perlette’ and ‘Muscat of Hamburg’ before harvest advanced maturation. A comparison between chemical and mechanical girdling showed that the former was somewhat less effective than the latter.

Open Access

Changes in lipid and total protein content of somatic embryos of pecan (Carya illinoinensis) were estimated during maturation, cold treatment alone (3, 5, or 8 weeks) or cold followed by dessication (3, 5, or 7 days). Triglyceride was estimated colorimetrically and methyl esters of fatty acids were analyzed by GC-MS. Total protein was extracted from the same tissue with 2% SDS in Tris·HCL buffer. Triglyceride content of enlarged somatic embryos was significantly lower than zygotic embryos and further declined after 5 weeks cold treatment. An even greater decline was observed during the desiccation treatment. The most abundant fatty acids in small and enlarged somatic embryos are linolenic > palmitic > oleic > stearic acid. However, the molar ratio of linolenic to oleic reached 1:1 after 5 weeks of cold treatment. During enlargement, protein content increased to levels found in zygotic embryos, with desiccation resulting in further elevation.

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Although somatic embryogenesis in vitro has been carried out successfully in a number of plants, a limiting factor in many somatic embryogenic systems is that plantlet regeneration is not obtainable or restricted to low frequencies. We have developed a repetitive, high frequency somatic embryogenic system in pecan (Carya illinoensis) and have identified effective treatments for improved somatic embryo conversion. A 6 to 10 week cold treatment followed by a 5 day desiccation, promoted enhanced root germination and extension, and epicotyl elongation. Light and transmission electron microscopic evaluations of somatic embryo cotyledon development will be presented and related to conversion enhancing treatments and their possible roles in embryo maturation.

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Several strains of Fuji apples were harvested weekly from September through October in 1990 and 1991, and evaluated for maturation and quality after 1 and 7 days at 20 °C following harvest and storage in atmospheres of 0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0% O2 and air. Results showed that Fuji apples have very low ethylene production rates and little firmness loss during maturation. A change in the postharvest respiration pattern preceded the increase ethylene synthesis. Oxygen concentration during storage directly affected apple respiration rate after removal from storage. Ethylene production rates and internal ethylene concentrations indicated that the apples were still in the preclimacteric stage after 7 to 9 months storage at 0.5%, 1.0%, or 2% O2. Fuji apples develop watercore and tend to have a particular type of corebrowing during maturation on the tree, or during and after storage. The cause is unknown.

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Although somatic embryogenesis in vitro has been carried out successfully in a number of plants, a limiting factor in many somatic embryogenic systems is that plantlet regeneration is not obtainable or restricted to low frequencies. We have developed a repetitive, high frequency somatic embryogenic system in pecan (Carya illinoensis) and have identified effective treatments for improved somatic embryo conversion. A 6 to 10 week cold treatment followed by a 5 day desiccation, promoted enhanced root germination and extension, and epicotyl elongation. Light and transmission electron microscopic evaluations of somatic embryo cotyledon development will be presented and related to conversion enhancing treatments and their possible roles in embryo maturation.

Free access