flowering species to support beneficial insects or legumes for nitrogen fixation ( Granatstein and Sanchez, 2009 ). This could occur in the tree row, as a “living mulch” or in the drive alley, where the legume biomass could be mowed in place, mowed, and
David Granatstein, Joan R. Davenport, and Elizabeth Kirby
Michel R. Wiman, Elizabeth M. Kirby, David M. Granatstein, and Thomas P. Sullivan
; Proebsting, 1958 ), and contribute nitrogen when they consist of leguminous species. However, cover crop biomass also creates a favorable habitat for rodent pests ( Sullivan and Hogue, 1987 ), and legumes are known to be a preferred rodent food source
Kyle E. Bair, Joan R. Davenport, and Robert G. Stevens
removal of N necessitates addition of nutrients to recharge depleted pools, fertilizers or green manures are plausible nutrient sources. Recent information suggests that legumes are capable of fixing between 11 and 336 kg·ha −1 N per year ( Havlin et al
John Rojas, Julian Quintero, Yhors Ciro, and Javier Silva
calories ( Valdez-Perez et al., 2011 ). These legumes are so vital for human nutrition that ≈12 million metric tons of Phaseolus vulgaris are consumed every year worldwide. Moreover, in 2014, the United States produced more than 86,700 t of kidney beans
Mehdi Sharifi, Julia Reekie, Andrew Hammermeister, Mohammed Zahidul Alam, and Taylor MacKey
minimize competition with trees, while at the same time contributing to soil productivity. Legume cover crops can provide N and have the potential to reduce or replace off-farm sources of N fertilizers ( Smukler et al., 2012 ). Cover crops contribute to
Joji Muramoto, Richard F. Smith, Carol Shennan, Karen M. Klonsky, James Leap, Miriam Silva Ruiz, and Stephen R. Gliessman
soil organic matter, compost, recently incorporated crop and cover crop residues, and various organic fertilizers. Cover crops can provide an inexpensive source of N for crop production ( Smith, in press ; Wyland et al., 1996 ). Use of a legume
Bharat P. Singh and Wayne F. Whitehead
The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of winter cover cropping with legumes for replacing synthetic N fertilization in tomato production. The following winter/spring fertility treatments were applied: 1) 0 N winter/ 0 N spring, 2) 0 N winter/90 kg·ha-1 N spring, 3) 0 N winter/180 kg·ha-1 N spring, 4) 0 N winter+rye/0 N spring, 5) 0 N winter+hairy vetch/0 N spring, and 6) 0 N winter+crimson clover/0 N spring. In the spring of 1996, tomato cultivar `Mountain Pride' was planted in all plots. The effects of different treatments on plant dry weight and fresh fruit yields were determined. Tomato following legumes or supplied with 90 kg·ha-1 fertilizer N produced highest plant dry weight, while 0 N winter/0 N spring and 0 N winter+rye/0 N spring produced plants with least dry weights. Treatments differed in a similar fashion also for fresh fruit yields. The results suggested that winter legumes were at par with commercial N fertilizer in supplying needed inorganic N to the succeeding tomato crop soil.
Steven J. Guldan, Charles A. Martin, Jose Cueto-Wong, and Robert L. Steiner
Three legumes [hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth.), barrel medic (Medicago truncatula Gaerth.), and black lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.)] were interseeded into `New Mexico 6-4' chile pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) when plants were 20–30 cm tall (3 Aug., “early” interseeding) or when plants were 30–40 cm tall (16–17 Aug., “late” interseeding) in 1993 and 1994. Our objectives were to determine the effect of legume interseeding on cumulative chile yield, and late-season dry-matter and nitrogen yields of aboveground portions of the legumes. Legumes were harvested on 8 Nov. 1993 and 15 Nov. 1994. Chile yield was not significantly affected by legume interseeding. In 1993, legumes accumulated 57% more dry matter and 55% more N when interseeded 3 Aug. vs. 16 Aug. In 1994, legumes accumulated 91% more dry matter and 86% more N when interseeded 3 Aug. vs. 17 Aug. Aboveground dry-matter yields in 1993 ranged from 1350 kg·ha–1 for black lentil interseeded late to 3370 kg·ha–1 for hairy vetch interseeded early. Nitrogen yields ranged from 52 kg·ha–1 for black lentil interseeded late to 136 kg·ha–1 for hairy vetch interseeded early. In 1994, hairy vetch was the highest yielding legume with dry matter at 1810 kg·ha–1 and N at 56 kg·ha–1 interseeded early, while black lentil yielded the lowest with dry matter at 504 kg·ha–1 and N at 17 kg·ha–1 interseeded late. In the spring following each interseeding year, we observed that hairy vetch had overwintered well, whereas barrel medic and black lentil had not, except when a few plants of barrel medic survived the winter of 1994–95. Results from this study indicate that legumes can be successfully interseeded into chile in the high-desert region of the southwestern United States without a significant decrease in chile yield.
S. Brauner, R.L. Murphy, J.G. Walling, J. Przyborowski, and N.F. Weeden
DNA primers for 37 genes have been developed in pea (Pisum sativum L.). Two-thirds of these primers also amplify orthologous sequences in lentil (Lens culinaris). The primers were designed to be complementary to highly conserved sequences in exons of known genes. In addition, most of the priming sequences were selected to be 1000 to 3000 bp distant on the genomic DNA and to amplify a fragment that contained at least one intron. Segregating sequence polymorphism in mapping populations of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from wide crosses in Pisum was observed by restriction of the amplified fragment with endonucleases recognizing four-base restriction sites. Successful mapping of 36 of these genes in pea demonstrated the utility of these primers for mapping, and it appears likely that the primers should have general utility for comparative mapping in legumes.
Steven J. Guldan, Charles A. Martin, William C. Lindemann, Jose Cueto-Wong, and Robert L. Steiner
Hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth.), barrel medic (Medicago truncatula Gaerth.), and black lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) were interseeded into `New Mexico 6-4' chile pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) when plants were 8 to 12 inches tall or 12 to 16 inches tall in 1993 and 1994. Hairy vetch overwintered well both years, whereas barrel medic and black lentil did not. Spring aboveground dry mass yields of hairy vetch averaged 2.11 and 2.57 tons per acre in 1994 and 1995, respectively, while N accumulation averaged 138 and 145 pounds per acre in 1994 and 1995, respectively. Forage sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] dry mass yield and N accumulation were significantly higher following hairy vetch than following the other legumes or no-legume control. There was no significant difference between forage sorghum yields following barrel medic, black lentil, or the no-legume control. Fertilizer replacement values (FRV) for the legumes were calculated from regression equations for forage sorghum dry mass yield as a function of N fertilizer rate. FRV for hairy vetch were at least 7-times higher than for either barrel medic or black lentil. Hairy vetch interseeded into chile pepper and managed as a winter annual can significantly increase the yield of a following crop compared to a nonfertilized control.