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particularly appropriate for irrigation scheduling ( Hanson et al., 2000 ). Leaf water potential (Ψ l ) measured at different times of the day (predawn and during the day) is often used to determine plant water status. Leaf water potential measured at predawn

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market tomatoes ( USDA, 1991 ). Predawn and midday leaf water potential (Ψ L ) and leaf relative water content (RWC) measurements were initiated on 7 July 2009 and 14 July 2010. Measurements of leaf RWC and Ψ L were conducted during the same time period

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Two experiments were conducted to assess the ability of a water-absorbing synthetic polymer to reduce water stress injury of seedlings of Pinus pinea L. under greenhouse and field conditions. In both experiments, two rates of hydrated hydrogel, corresponding to 200 and 400 cm3 of stored water, and a control treatment without hydrophilic polymer were tested. Survival periods for the pine seedlings were 1.4 and 2.0 times longer for the 200- and 400-cm3 treatments, respectively, than for a control treatment in a greenhouse assay. In the field assay, only differences in seedling survival between both hydrogel treatments and control were measured. Leaf water potential values of control plants were significantly lower than hydrated polymer treatments in both experiments. From these results, we conclude that the use of hydrophilic polymers may be an important method of increasing the success of reforestation in semiarid regions.

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water potential was measured using the third fully expanded leaf. Five leaves were collected in each plot before sunrise ( Rudich et al., 1981 ), enclosed in zip-lock bags, and put in an insulated box. Leaf water potential was measured after leaf

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, medium, or high salt-tolerant. We monitored changes in leaf water potential and plant quality of sea hibiscus, a high salt-tolerant plant, exposed to increasing EC and Na levels. Because measuring water potential is impractical for a grower, for

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increased yields of Geneva double curtain-trained ‘Concord’ by 13% as well as increasing berry and pruning weights. In New York, Liu et al. (1978) measured leaf water potential <−16 bars in field-grown ‘Concord’ vines; however, despite these conditions

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We determined the effect of moderate water stress on the growth of american ginseng (Panax quinquefolium), and on concentrations of six major ginsenosides (Rg1, Re, Rb1, Rc, Rb2, and Rd). Two-year-old “rootlets” (dormant rhizome and storage root) were cultivated in pots, in a cool greenhouse (18.3 ± 2 °C). Pots were watered either every 5 days (control) or every 10 days (stress), repeatedly for 8 days. Soil volumetric water content was measured during the last 10 days of the experiment for both treatments. Leaf water potential, measured on the last day of the experiment, was -0.43 MPa for the control and -0.83 MPa for the stress treatment. Drought stress did not affect above-ground shoot or root dry weight. Initial rootlet fresh weight (covariate) had a significant effect on the concentration of ginsenosides Re, Rb1, Rc, and Rb2. Drought stress increased the concentration of ginsenosides Re, Rb1, and total ginsenoside concentration.

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The theme of this review is modulation of extension growth in transplant production through restraint of watering of the seedlings. The purpose of the modulation is to produce transplants of 1) appropriate height for ease of field setting and 2) adequate stress tolerance to withstand outdoor environmental conditions. Physiological responses of the plant are discussed in relation to the degree of water deficit stress and are related to the degree of hardening or stress tolerance development in the transplants. Optimal stress tolerance or techniques for measuring same have not been fully defined in the literature. However, stress tolerance in seedlings is necessary to withstand environmental forces such as wind and sand-blasting after the seedlings are transplanted in the field. It is also imperative that the seedlings undertake a rapid and sustained rate of growth after outdoor transplanting. Water deficit stress applied to plants elicits many different physiological responses. For example, as leaf water potential begins to decrease, leaf enlargement is inhibited before photosynthesis or respiration is affected, with the result of a higher rate of dry matter accumulation per unit leaf area. The cause of the reduced leaf area may be a result of reduced K uptake by the roots with a concomitant reduction in cell expansion. Severe water deficits however, result in overstressed seedlings with stunted growth and poor establishment when transplanted into the field. In transplant production systems, appropriate levels of water deficit stress can be used as a management tool to produce seedlings conducive to the transplanting process.

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Research suggests that blackleaf (a leaf disorder in grape, Vitis labrusca L.) is induced by high levels of ultra violet (UV) radiation and overall light intensity, resulting in color changes (purple-brown-black) for sun-exposed leaves of the outer canopy, and a corresponding >50% reduction in photosynthesis. Metabolic indicators (photosynthesis and leaf water potential), percent blackleaf expression, and full spectrum leaf reflectance were mapped within vineyards using global positioning system (GPS) and digital remotely-sensed images. Each image and data record was stored as an attribute associated with a specific vine location within a geographical information system (GIS). Spatial maps were created from the GIS coverages to graphically present the progression of blackleaf across vineyards throughout the season. Analysis included summary statistics such as minimum, maximum, and variation of green reflectance, within a vineyard by image capture date. Additionally, geostatistics were used to model the degree of similarity between blackleaf values as a function of their spatial location. Remote-image analysis indicated a decrease in percent greenness of about 45% between July and August, which was related to a decrease in photosynthesis and an increase in blackleaf symptom expression within the canopy. Examination of full spectral leaf reflectance indicated differences at specific wavelengths for grape leaves exposed to UV or water-deficit stress. This work suggests that remote-image and leaf spectral reflectance analysis may be a strong tool for monitoring changes in metabolism associated with plant stress.

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climates similar to China. Soil and Plant Water Status in Grape under Various Water Deficit Regimes Seasonal trend of soil water potential, leaf water potential, and stomatal conductance of ‘Tempranillo’ grapevines were determined by Centeno et al. (p. 585

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