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Open access

John C. Pair and Steven M. Still

Abstract

Three of 6 antitranspirants significantly reduced winter injury 1 of 5 years when applied 1 and 2 times to Ilex × attenuata Ashe ‘Foster's No. 2’. No reduction of winter injury was observed during 1979 and 1980 even though leaf water potentials recorded during winter stress periods indicated that Exhalt 4-10, Vapor Gard, Wilt Pruf, Folicote, and Foligard significantly reduced transpirational loss of water in midwinter. Two applications of Folicote and Exhalt 4-10 increased water potential more than the single fall application, but did not reduce winter injury significantly. Clear Spray did not increase leaf water potential and appeared to crack and peel within 3 weeks aftef application. Scanning electron micrographs indicated better coverage of leaf surfaces by dipping them by spraying and verified the rapid cracking of Clear Spray.

Open access

C. D. Stanley, B. K. Harbaugh, and J. F. Price

Abstract

A study was conducted to investigate environmental factors which affect leaf water potential (LWP) response of chrysanthemums (Chrysanthemum × morifolium Ramat). Meteorological parameters, including air temperature (TEMP), relative humidity (HUM), total solar radiation (RAD), and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) were measured simultaneously as LWP determinations were made diurnally for plants grown with 5 different irrigation rates. Stepwise multiple regression analyses using the meteorological parameters as independent variables and LWP as the dependent variable showed that models developed for each irrigation rate included TEMP, HUM, and PAR as statistically significant (P = 5%) independent variables. Coefficients of determination (R2) for the models ranged from 0.83–0.87. A combined model, including irrigation rate (R) as an independent variable along with the meteorological parameters, revealed that TEMP, PAR, HUM, and R were statistically significant at P = 1% and had an R2 = 0.84. Results reveal environmental factors which must be considered in studies involving LWP measurements for chrysanthemums in order to avoid misinterpretation of data.

Open access

J.C. Stark, J.C. Ojala, and I.R. McCann

Abstract

Regression models of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Russet Burbank) leaf water potential (ψleaf) were developed for irrigated conditions using concurrent measurements of total solar irradiance (Rs), air vapor pressure deficit (VPD), air temperature (Ta) and windspeed. Estimates of potential evaporation (Ep) also were related to ψleaf. The data were collected over a 3-year period from two locations in southern Idaho. Of the variables tested, Rs had the highest simple correlation with ψleaf (r = 0.93), although a slightly higher correlation was obtained for log-transformed values of VPD (1n VPD). Potato ψleaf was best described by the equation ψleaf = -0.3672 - 0.1959 In VPD – 0.0005 Rs, where ψleaf, VPD, and Rs are expressed in units of MPa, kPa and W·m–2, respectively. The model accounted for 95% of the variation in ψleaf for well-watered ‘Russet Burbank’ potatoes. When the model was tested on an independent data set, it estimated diurnal changes in ψleaf for several different cultivars to within ±0.1 MPa of the measured values. The relationship between ψleaf and Ep was nonlinear and was described by an exponential function. Estimates for the Ep model were nearly identical to those for the VPD Rs model when ψleaf values were below -0.3 MPa.

Open access

Jehoshua Rudich, Edgar Rendon-Poblete, M. Allen Stevens, and Abdel-Ilah Ambri

Abstract

Tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) were grown under 4 irrigation treatments. In the first three an attempt was made to maintain soil water at a different level for each treatment. The fourth treatment was an approximation of the varied moisture levels that would be encountered with furrow irrigation. Leaf water potential (ΨL) was affected more during a day by atmospheric factors than by soil water availability. Hourly changes in ΨL and air water potential (Ψ air) were highly correlated (range .94*** and .99***). ΨL decreased as the plant aged, apparently due to decreasing soil water availability, decreasing root activity, and increasing resistance to water flow in stems and leaves. The stress factor, (which is an integration of the area below −6 bars; a critical level for tomatoes) was determined from the second degree polynomial regression of time versus ΨL and is proposed as a useful integration of ΨL. By using stepwise regression it was found that plant water status as evaluated by tensiometer reading, stress factor, the ratio of soil water/soil water at field capacity, and daily pan evaporation had the greatest effect on yield and total soluble solids content of tomato fruit.

Open access

Z. Even-Chen, S. A. Weinbaum, and R. W. Pearcy

Abstract

The effects of ambient temperatures between 15° and 43°C were determined on net photosynthesis of ‘French’ prune (Prunus domestica L. cv. Agen) trees maintained under a non-limiting soil water supply. The temperature optimum for photosynthesis was about 30° and net CO2 assimilation decreased rapidly above 35° even when water vapor pressure differences (VPD) were only 5 to 10 mb. Leaf resistance (r1) remained very low (2 to 3 sec cm-1) although leaf temperature reached 47° and the leaf water potential (ψ) decreased to -25 bars. Thus, non-stomatal photosynthetic inhibition was responsible for the 80% decline in net CO2 assimilation. Canopy wetting prevented the decline in net CO2 assimilation by reducing leaf temperature 8° (vs. control) and maintaining the ψ 14 bars higher than the non-misted control.

Free access

Jordi Marsal and Joan Girona

Relationships between midday (Ψmd) and predawn (Ψpd) leaf water potential, stomatal conductance (gs), and net CO2 assimilation rate (A) were determined at different fruit growth stages and for 2 years with different fruit loads in a `Sudanell' peach [Prunus persica (L) Batsch] plot subjected to two regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) strategies plus a control irrigation treatment. A postharvest RDI (PRDI) treatment was irrigated at 0.35 of the control after harvest. The second treatment (SPRDI) applied RDI during Stage II, the lag phase of the fruit growth curve, at 0.5 of the control and postharvest at 0.35 of the control. The control treatment and the PRDI and SPRDI when not receiving RDI were irrigated at 100% of a modified Penman crop water use calculation (ETo) in 1994, a full crop year, and 80% in 1995, a year of nearly zero crop. In 1995, with 80% of the 1994 irrigation rate and no crop, the Ψmd was higher, probably because of the lower crop load, while Ψpd was lower, probably because less water was applied to the soil. The relationship of gs and A with Ψmd during Stage II was steeper than during postharvest. Low Ψmd was not indicative of a depression in gs and A in Stage III. Osmotic leaf water potential at turgor loss (Ψπ 0) as derived from pressure-volume curves was more negative during Stage III and postharvest (about -2.9 MPa) than in Stage II (about -2.7 MPa). The Ψmd measurements together with Ψπ 0 determinations seemed to be more useful to characterize peach tree water status than Ψpd under soil water deficits because of their better relationship to midday stomatal closure.

Free access

Chuhe Chen, J. Scott Cameron, and Ann Marie VanDerZanden

Leaf water potential (LWP). relative water content (RWC), gas exchange rates and 4th-derivative spectra were measured in water-stressed and normally Irrigated plank of Totem' strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) grown in a growth chamber. CO2 assimilation rate (A) dropped sharply when LWP decreased from -0.5 to -1.2 MPa and almost ceased as LWP fell below -1.5 MPa. There was a significant but more gradual decline of A as RWC decreased form 90% to 55%. An exponential relationship with A was observed across a wide range of LWP and RWC (Rz= 0.64, 0.86, respectively). LWP was more closely related with transpiration and leaf and stomatal conductances than with A and water use efficiency. RWC was highly correlated with all gas exchange parameters.

Under moderate water stress, younger leaves maintain higher RWC and A than older leaves. There was no relationship between LWP and leaf age.

RWC and A were both negatively correlated with peak amplitudes of Ca 684 and Ca 697 and positively correlated with Ca 693 in their 4th-derivative spectra of chlorophyll. LWP had a negative correlation with Cb 640.

Free access

Chuhe Chen, J. Scott Cameron, and Stephen F. Klauer

Leaf water potential (LWP), relative water content (RWC), gas exchange characteristics, and specific leaf weight (SLW) were measured six hours before, during, and after water stress treatment in F. chiloensis and F. ×ananassa grown in growth chambers. The leaves of both species showed significantly lower LWP and RWC as water stress developed. F. ×ananassa had consistency lower LWP under stressed and nonstressed conditions than F. chiloensis. F. ×ananassa had higher RWC under nonstressed conditions, and its RWC decreased more rapidly under water stress than F. chiloensis. In comparison to F. ×ananassa, F. chiloensis had significantly higher CO2 assimilation rate (A), leaf conductance (LC), and SLW, but not transpiration rate (Tr), under stressed and nonstressed conditions. LC was the most sensitive gas exchange characteristic to water stress and decreased first. Later, A and stomatal conductance were reduced under more severe water stress. A very high level of Tr was detected in F. ×ananassa under the most severe water stress and did not regain after stress recovery, suggesting a permanent damage to leaf. The Tr of F. chiloensis was affected less by water stress. Severe water stress resulted in higher SLW of both species.

Full access

Ana Centeno, Pilar Baeza, and José Ramón Lissarrague

particularly appropriate for irrigation scheduling ( Hanson et al., 2000 ). Leaf water potential (Ψ l ) measured at different times of the day (predawn and during the day) is often used to determine plant water status. Leaf water potential measured at predawn

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Timothy Coolong, Susmitha Surendran, and Richard Warner

market tomatoes ( USDA, 1991 ). Predawn and midday leaf water potential (Ψ L ) and leaf relative water content (RWC) measurements were initiated on 7 July 2009 and 14 July 2010. Measurements of leaf RWC and Ψ L were conducted during the same time period