Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 31 items for :

  • "integrated pest management" x
  • Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science x
Clear All

Field research was conducted at a container nursery to investigate fungicide movement in runoff water. Fungicides were applied as either a preventative treatment to all container plants, or as a component of an integrated pest management (IPM) program in which fungicides were only applied to plants showing signs of pathogen infestation. Thiophanate-methyl and chlorothalonil were applied in July and August 1998, and metalaxyl was applied in September 1998. Runoff water was sampled on the day after application (first irrigation after pesticide application) through three pulse irrigation cycles. Total amounts of thiophanate-methyl and chlorothalonil in runoff water were 7% and 4%, respectively, of applied amount in July. In August, 2% and 4% of thiophanate-methyl and chlorothalonil were found from the preventative treatment. Of the applied metalaxyl, 25% was detected in runoff water for the first irrigation event after application from the preventative treatment. Metalaxyl is a highly water soluble pesticide and nontarget losses from the granular application contributed to the large amounts detected. Total amounts of thiophanate-methyl, chlorothalonil and metalaxyl detected in runoff from the IPM treatment were 25% of amounts from the preventative treatment. No treatment differences were found in container plant salability or in the number of culls at the end of the study.

Free access

This project was funded by USDA North Central Region Integrated Pest Management Grant no. 58-5430-8-131 and USDA National Research Initiative Biologically-Based Pest Management Program Award no. 2002-34381-12146. This manuscript has been assigned

Free access

The hypothesis that carbon balance is the basis for differences in responses by lightly and normally cropped apple trees to European red mite (ERM) [Panonychus ulmi (Koch)] damage was tested. Mature `Starkrimson Delicious' (Malus domestica Borkh.)/M.26 apple trees were hand-thinned to light (125 fruit/tree, about 20 t/ha) or normal (300 fruit/tree, about 40 t/ha) target crop levels and infested with low [<100 cumulative mite-days (CMD)], medium (400 to 1000 CMD) or high (>1000 CMD) target levels of ERM. A range of crop loads and CMD was obtained. Mite population density, fruit growth, leaf and whole-canopy net CO2 exchange rates (NCER) were measured throughout the growing season of 1994. Leaf area and vegetative growth per tree were also measured. Yield and final mean fruit size were determined at harvest. Return bloom and fruiting were determined the following year. Total shoot length per tree was not affected by crop load or mite damage. ERM reduced leaf and whole-canopy NCER. Normally cropped trees showed fruit weight reduction earlier and more severely than lightly cropped trees with high mite injury. Variation in final fruit weight, return bloom and return fruiting was much better related to whole-canopy NCER per fruit than to CMD.

Free access

The influence of pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] leaflet bronzing, a discoloration of the lower surface, on foliar physiology and nut-meat yield is unknown. Field investigations indicate that bronzing can adversely affect foliage by reducing net photoassimilation (A), stomatal conductance (sgw ), and transpiration (E) while also altering stomatal aperture and cellular structure, and increasing temperature. Kernel weight and fill percentage are also reduced. Research indicated that foliar A declined in proportion to degree of bronze coloration, with negative A exhibited by heavily bronzed foliage. A by bronzed foliage did not increase as light levels exceeded ≈250 μmol·m-2·s-1. Within the same compound leaf, nonbronzed leaflets adjacent to bronzed leaflets exhibited greater than normal A. Bronzed leaflets also exhibited lower sgw to water vapor, less transpirational H2O loss, and higher afternoon leaf temperature. Light micrographs of bronzed foliage indicated abnormal epidermal and spongy mesophyll cells. Weight and percentage of kernel comprising the nut declined on shoots supporting foliage bronzing in July to August, but was unaffected when bronzing occurred in September to October. Bronzing of pecan foliage can therefore be of both physiological and economic significance.

Free access

Abstract

Scars caused by the ovipositional and feeding activities of the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), on ‘Thompson Seedless’ and ‘Calmeria’ table grapes, Vitis vinifera L., had no effect on many measurable quality attributes of the fruit. Scarred berries showed no apparent differences in size or average weight when compared to undamaged fruit. However, scarred ‘Thompson Seedless’ berries had a higher soluble solids content. The acid content was not affected by any type of scar and all fruit had soluble solids to acid ratios of at least 20:1. Scarring did not affect the weight loss of fruit in short-term storage at 0.6°C, and scarred berries were not injured by sulfur dioxide fumigation.

Open Access

Abstract

Each of 11 cultivars of sweet corn (Zea mays L.) was presented to red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus L.) in an aviary under no-choice conditions in 1985. This evaluation was repeated in 1986 with eight cultivars, five of which had been tested in 1985. In both years, there were significant differences in damage among cultivars; the damage rankings of the cultivars tested in both years were correlated. Total husk weight and husk weight beyond the cob tip individually explained 68% to 69% of the variation in damage among cultivars. Husk characteristics were more important than kernel characteristics in determining the amount of damage a cultivar received. Six of the cultivars evaluated in a field test near a blackbird roost showed differences in damage similar to that found in the aviary. In the field test, the most- and least-resistant cultivars had 16% and 76% of the ears damaged, respectively. Resistance is a viable approach to reduce damage in situations where sweet corn is grown near concentrations of blackbirds.

Open Access

Abstract

This study was designed to determine the effect of pest control intensity on net returns in multiple cropping systems. The study is tempered with an evaluation of risk. The cropping system encompasses: turnip greens (Brassica rapa L.) for processing, field corn (Zea mays L.), and southern peas [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. ssp. unguiculata] for processing. Within the ranges of pest control intensities studied, less intensive control resulted in higher net returns. Further, the level of greatest pest control intensity consistently yielded negative net returns. This level, however, was less risky in terms of gross returns. Risk did not differ significantly between the other levels of pest control.

Open Access
Authors: , , and

Contribution no. 4188 of the Clemson Univ. Dept. of Plant Pathology and Physiology. This work was supported in part by the South Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station and by the Integrated Pest Management Collaborative Research Support Program, U

Free access

1 Research genetieist. 2 Research plant pathologist. The technical assistance of F.P. Maguire, M.M. Hulsey, and E.L. Corley, Jr., is gratefully acknowledged. This work was supported, in part, by the Integrated Pest Management Collaborative Research

Free access

1 Research geneticist. 2 Research plant pathologist. This work was supported, in part, by the Integrated Pest Management Collaborative Support Program (IPM CRSP), U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), under Grant Numbers LAG-4196-G-00

Free access