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effect in both substrate and hydroponic conditions during the vegetative growth stage. Species pH effect was quantified as mEq of root zone acidity–basicity per gram dry weight gain per plant in substrate and hydroponics. For plants grown in substrate

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al. 2019 ). Nevertheless, further research is needed to identify and characterize lettuce accessions with higher PUE in hydroponics. P-efficient lettuce accessions could benefit hydroponic growers by reducing P inputs and/or improving the efficiency

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for screening stress tolerance in different plants, demanding lower resources, materials, and time than field trials ( Sakhanokho and Kelley, 2009 ). Hydroponics has been used to access herbicide tolerance or resistance in weeds ( Brosnan et al., 2014

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bioavailability compared with unchelated Cu ( Tills 1987 ). Chelates also minimize Cu binding to hydroxide and phosphate ions ( Jurinak and Inouye 1962 ). Chelation can decrease Cu availability in hydroponics because it must be extracted from the chelate

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according to RGR? To what extent are these determined by irradiance or time of year and by conditions of the nutrient solution in hydroponics? Irradiance is the primary factor affecting RGR ( Gent, 2014 ). However, a function of light intercepted by the crop

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Abstract

Hydroponic and aeroponic methods have been used to study the propagation and growth of plants (1, 2, 4). A combination of these two methods of liquid culture, aero-hydroponics, has been developed (3). Known as the Ein Gedi System (EGS), this aerohydroponics method incorporates the advantages (buffered nutrient capacity of hydroponics and water oxygenation of aeroponics) of both types of liquid culture. The objective of this study was to compare aero-hydroponics (EGS) and solid media for cutting propagation with and without overhead mist.

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anaerobic respiration. Oxygenation in Hydroponics Plant growth has been shown to increase when irrigated with additional dissolved oxygen (DO) in the solution ( Soffer et al., 1990 ), therefore, in hydroponics it is important that oxygen is dissolved in the

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level for being considered as a replacement to HPS lamps in hydroponics growth environments. LED lamps are anticipated to replace HPS lamps in most applications as a result of their reduced electricity consumption, improved quality of light, and the

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Many people want to use hydroponics in production of plants but often are hobbyists with limited access to the reagents necessary to formulate a nutrient solution. Several readily available commercial fertilizers and chemicals with tomato-(Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) as the test plant were used to develop a nutrient solution. A 20-8.8-16.6 IN-P-K) general purpose fertilizer was added (1 g/liter) to deionized water to make a basic solution. This solution was fortified with slow-release fertilizer (approx. 17N-2.6P-8.5K with Ca, Hg, and minor elements) at 1 g/liter added directly to hydroponics vessels. Tomato developed severe foliar symptoms of Ca deficiency in this medium. Addition of CaSO4 or CaCO3 at 0.5 or 1 g/liter to give a solid phase of these chemicals in the vessels prevented development of symptoms of Ca deficiency; however, plants now showed symptoms of Mg deficiency. Addition of MgS0 at 0.25 g/liter to the basic solution prevented symptoms o Mg deficiency. Analyses confirmed that leaf N, P, K, Ca, and Mg were sufficient.

This solution was as good as Hoagland's No. 1 solution for growth of tomato, marigold, and cucumber and was better than Hoagland's solution for growth of corn and wheat.

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