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research was supported by Federal Formula Funds, Regional Project NE103. We thank Mary Jean Welser for the histological preparations of material in this study. The cost of publishing this paper was defrayed in part by the payment of page charges. Under

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. Sta.). Histological variables (union line, callus proliferation, and deposit intensity) were used to discriminate the compatible from the incompatible combinations [adapted from Ermel et al. (1995) ]. Results and Discussion There was an

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The histology and morphology of developing asparagus Asparagus officinalis L.) somatic embryos arising in callus cultures were examined and contrasted with that documented for zygotic embryos. Histological sections of lateral bud-derived callus cultured for 2 weeks on embryo induction medium consisting of Murashige and Skoog salts and vitamins (MS) with 1.5 mg NAA/liter and 0.1 mg kinetin/liter indicated the formation of distinct groups of embryogenic cells. At 4 weeks, the callus was comprised of embryos in the early and late globular stages and a few bipolar embryos. Within 2 weeks on embryo development medium consisting of MS with 0.05 mg NAA/liter and 0.1 mg kinetin/liter, the globular embryos developed a bipolar shape having an expanded upper region that formed the cotyledon and a smaller region that formed the radicle. Within 4 to 6 weeks on this latter medium, each mature bipolar embryo was opaque and had a large cotyledon, a distinct shoot apex at the cotyledon-hypocotyl junction, and vascular connections between the radicle, shoot apex, and cotyledon. Many mature somatic embryos resembled the asparagus zygotic embryos in having a crescent shape, whereas others had a short but wide cotyledon. Both somatic embryo types converted to plantlets at equal rates. Chemical names used: N- (2-furanylmethyl)-1 H -purin-6-amine (kinetin); 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA).

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water loss, high starch accumulation, and a low soluble sugar content ( Chaplin et al., 1991 ; Chhatpar et al., 1971 ; Gupta and Jain, 2014 ; Medlicott et al., 1990 ; Mohammed and Brecht, 2002 ). Histological observation revealed that starch granules

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represented 12.1% ± 3.9%, the tuberous roots 6.3% ± 2.1%, and the fine roots only 3.9% ± 0.8% ( Fig. 21 ). Histological and histochemical study. Young roots have a small diameter; the parenchymatous cortex is limited to five or six concentric cambia

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intensity affects the expression of variegation, and 5) compare growth performance between variegated and WT plants under different light intensities. Materials and Methods Histology of variegated and WT leaf tissue sectors. Small pieces of

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A hybridization strategy for certain coloration could be developed based on accurate histological information of parental material together with the knowledge of heritability of color and color intensity. A sample of 12 Anthurium species and hybrids were histologically examined for pigmentation in spathes using a new method employing vacuum infiltration of spathe tissue with polyethylene glycol (PEG) prior to cross-sectioning. PEG infiltration displaces intercellular air spaces between cells. This method greatly improved the clarity of the cross sections and consequently improved observations of spatial localization of anthocyanins and chloroplasts. This infiltration method accurately identified the spatial localization of pigments for future breeding reference, notably among Anthurium species.

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Broccoli (Brassica oleraceae L. var. Italica cv. `Premium Crop') plants grown in perlite were supplied with nutrient solutions containing three levels of added boron (0.04 (severely deficient), 0.08 (moderately deficient) or 0.80 (normal) mg L-1). These treatments produced plants exhibiting either obvious (0.04 mg L-1) or no visual boron deficiency symptoms (0.08 and 0.80 mg L-1). At horticultural maturity, cross sections were taken in the upper and mid stem regions. The specimens were mounted on slides after being processed through a biological staining series. Boron availability was found to be correlated with the progressive internal deterioration of the stem which was observed histologically. An examination of staining patterns indicated that possibly a lignification process accompanies and contributes to hollow stem development. We have previously noted an increase in phenolic compounds and fiber content of broccoli produced under boron deficient conditions. The histological evidence of lignification further substantiates that boron deficiency induces changes in cell wall structure which may contribute to the development of hollow stem.

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, limited information is available about the pollinia development of Oncidesa , and there are no reports about the possible roles of anther tissues in relation to the male sterility or low fertility. Histological study on pollinia development is required to

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