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  • Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science x
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The inheritance of corona and hilum ring color of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) was investigated in the reciprocal cross `Wagenaar' (a Canario market class dry bean) × `Mayocoba' (Mayocoba market class dry bean), where both parents were known to have seedcoat color genotype P [C r] gy J g b v lae Rk. `Wagenaar' has greenish yellow (GY) seedcoat (due to gy) except for purple (dark) corona (due to v lae) and reddish brown hilum ring (due to J), whereas `Mayocoba' has an entirely GY seedcoat. Seeds produced on the F1 progeny plants had GY corona and reddish brown hilum ring. The F2 segregated for three phenotypic classes, the two parental classes and the F1 class, but the segregation did not fit a 1:2:1 segregation ratio due to disturbed segregation. F3 progeny tests of 35 randomly selected F2 parents demonstrated that the two parental classes were true breeding and the F1 class segregated again (as in the F2) for the same three phenotypic classes. In spite of variable expressivity of GY color and disturbed segregation, the data support a single gene hypothesis, for which the tentative symbol Chr is proposed. Chr is dominant for changing purple corona to GY, but recessive for changing reddish brown hilum ring to GY. Thus, only one gene, Chr, controls the difference in seedcoat color between the market classes Canario and Mayocoba. An allelism test between Chr and Z (hilum ring color factor) is needed before a formal proposal for Chr can be made.

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Inheritance of two phenotypes, the virgarcus pattern of partly colored seedcoats and the margo d seedcoat pattern, were studied in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) materials that segregated jointly for genes controlling the two phenotypes to test the hypothesis of allelism of two genes, D and Z. The F2 progeny from the cross j margo BC3 5-593 × t z virgarcus BC3 5-593 produced an unexpected phenotypic class, margo d, suggesting possible allelism of D and Z. The F2 also produced another unexpected phenotypic class, white seedcoat, for which the genetic hypothesis t j z was made. The F2 from the cross t j marginata BC3 5-593 × t z virgarcus BC3 5-593 provided supporting evidence for the new genotype, t j z, for a white seedcoat. Analysis of the F2 and F3 progenies of 80 random F2 plants from the cross t z virgarcus BC3 5-593 × d j (margo d) BC3 5-593 provided support for the hypothesis that the D and Z loci are allelic. Production of two different phenotypes (white vs. white with two tiny pale gray dots, one each at the raphe and micropyle) for t J/j z in two different genetic and cytoplasmic backgrounds is discussed. The F2 from the crosses d j (margo d) BC2 5-593 × j v margo BC2 5-593 and d j (margo d) BC3 5-593 × j margo BC3 5-593 segregated for d (vs. D) phenotypes, which were found not to be independent of a randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker (AM10560) associated (1.4 cM) with the Z locus. Because the Z gene symbol has priority, we propose to retain Z for the locus.

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Four planting and harvest dates yielded 16 lots of `Ruddy' red kidney beans (Phaseofus vulgaris L.) that were canned immediately after harvest in the fall and from storage in January and April. Late planting resulted in a high percentage of acceptable beans, but time of harvest had little effect on subsequent canning quality. The most important defect was transverse splitting from the hilum. Hilum splits, drained weight, cooked weight, and seed size were all negatively correlated with acceptability. Seed size was the most important factor determining quality, with the smallest seeds exhibiting the fewest splits. Length of storage had significant but small effects on canned seed quality.

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The inheritance of hilum ring color in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) was investigated using various genetic tester stocks developed by backcrossing recessive alleles into a recurrent parent stock 5-593 with seedcoat genotype P [C r] D J G B V Rk, viz., mar BC2 5-593, mar BC3 5-593, mar v BC2 5-593, mar d BC2 5-593, and mar d BC3 5-593. The current hypothesis is that the margo character is controlled by mar and hilum ring color is controlled by d but expresses only with mar. The V locus controls flower and seedcoat color. The allelism test crosses `Citroen' (P C d j g b v lae) × mar BC3 5-593 and `Citroen' × mar d BC3 5-593 demonstrated that mar is allelic with j and that the putative d in mar d BC3 5-593 is allelic with the d in `Citroen'. Thus, the former genetic tester stocks mar BC3 5-593 and mar d BC3 5-593 are reclassified as j BC3 5-593 and d j BC3 5-593, respectively, because mar is a synonym for j. Similarly, the former genetic tester stock mar v BC2 5-593 is reclassified as j v BC2 5-593. The interaction of j with d expresses as loss of color in the hilum ring. The development of the white-seeded genetic tester stock P c u d j BC3 5-593 was described in detail, where the all-recessive tester `Prakken 75' was used as the source of the recessive alleles. The previously reported work showing that the partly colored seedcoat gene t interacts with mar to control seedcoat pattern is now interpreted to mean that the joker (J) locus interacts with t to produce partly colored seedcoat patterns. The genetic loci D and V were found to segregate independently. The common gene for dull seedcoats (asper, asp) is discussed and contrasted with j.

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The white-seeded snap bean `Early Wax' (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) was crossed with a black-seeded breeding line 5-593. The F2 segregation data are consistent with a three-gene model, in which all three genes must be homozygous recessive to give white seed coat. One of the genes is t because of segregation in F2 for plants with white flowers and partial seed coat coloration. We hypothesize that the genes ers and ers2 in the presence of f block all seed color expression in all genes for partial coloration of seed. The hypothesis of three recessive genes was confirmed in a backcross test involving `Early Wax' x F1. The interaction of ers and ers2 was tested in progeny tests of partly colored BC-F1 plants. One of the erasure genes, ers2, blocks color expression in color zones close to the hilum, but only in the presence of ers. The other erasure gene, ers, blocks color expression only in color zones beyond those close to the hilum in a manner similar to the restr locus of Prakken (1972). The old hypothesis that partly colored seed phenotypes require the presence of a second factor e in addition to t, where the function of e is vague and unspecified, should be discarded for lack of supporting evidence, Under the new hypothesis, soldier series phenotypes (e.g., bipunctata, arcus, virgata, and virgarcus) may express in t ers Ers2 by action of ers or in t Ers Ers2 by action of various genes for partly colored seeds other than ers.

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, but for a different reason—it contained five pairs of recessive genes for partial coloration ( Lamprecht 1947 , 1957a , 1957b ). Testas that were homozygous recessive for the genes z and mp lacked anthocyanins in a narrow zone from the hilum to

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: 10 mm ( A ), 1 mm ( B–D, G–I ), 50 μm ( E ), 250 μm ( F ), 250 μm ( J ), 50 μm ( K ), 250 μm ( L ), and 250 μm ( M ). AN = apical notch; AVB = axial vascular bundle; B = beak; C = chalaza; DE = distal end; F = fossettes; H = hilum; K = karina; OVB

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might be present in OSU5446. Flower color (white for OSU5446 and purple for RR6950) indicated the presence of V in RR6950. RR6950 seed were shiny ( JJ ) and possessed a hilum ring ( DD ). OSU5446 had shiny seed but p masked hilum ring color. No

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brief review of the genetics of partly colored seed coats in common bean Annu. Rep. Bean Improv. Coop. 43 99 101 Bassett, M.J. Shearon, C. McClean, P.E. 1999 Allelism found between two common bean genes, hilum ring color ( D ) and partly colored seedcoat

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Abstract

Transverse cracking of cotyledons, (TVC), varied from 0 to 95% among bean cultivars and was enhanced by planting dry seed in wet soils. A more reliable indication of TVC potential was obtained if the seed was placed in small beakers and covered with water. Covering the hilum with grease slowed imbibition and reduced TVC in tolerant lines. Soaking for 45 minutes in ethanol prior to imbibition in water accelerated imbibition and increased TVC. Seed coat removal prior to imbibition further enhanced imbibition and increased TVC. None of these 3 treatments changed the relative amount of TVC, but seed coat nicking or removal prior to imbibition gave the most reliable test.

Potassium and Mg in cotyledons were negatively correlated with cultivar susceptibility. Calcium was sometimes significantly correlated with TVC in seed grown in a given location, but the correlations could be lacking or of opposite sign in seed grown elsewhere.

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