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microclimate in the summer by decreasing leaf temperature and leaf transpiration rate, thus alleviating heat stress ( Aberkani et al., 2008 ). The cultivation area under shade is constantly increasing in Mediterranean countries such as Israel, Morocco, and

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Influence of irrigation regime on growth of select field-grown tree species in a semiarid climate J. Environ. Hort. 27 134 138 Harlan, S.L. Brazel, A.J. Prashad, L. Stefanov, W.L. Larsen, L. 2006 Neighborhood microclimates and vulnerability to heat stress

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fogging systems have been used to prevent plant heat stress during the day. In fact, shading is one of the conventional and familiar techniques used by growers to decrease solar radiation and reduce air and leaf temperatures ( Sandri et al., 2003 ). Many

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several hours ( Ruter and Ingram, 1990 ). One method of dealing with heat stress in container production is to use containers with alternative colors or composition instead of black plastic. Black plastic pots act as heat sinks because of their ability to

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.K. Yoza, K. Nagata, T. Hosoda, H. 1999 The study of heat stress in tomato fruits by NMR microimaging Magn. Reson. Imaging 17 767 772 doi: 10.1016/S0730-725X(98)00219-7 10.1016/S0730-725X(98)00219-7 Kagan-Zur, V. Tieman, D.M. Marlow, S.J. Handa, A.K. 1995

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Container nurseries are generally more productive than field nurseries because plants can be produced faster and at higher densities. Increasingly, nursery stock is being propagated, grown, and marketed in containers. The prime biological advantage of container stock over bareroot and field-grown balled and burlapped (B&B) stock is that the root system is packaged and protected from transplant or mechanical stress; however, temperature stress limits container production. Plants overwintered in containers suffer greater winter injury than those in the ground because the roots are surrounded by cold, circulating air rather than the insulating environment of the soil. There are several methods for providing protection from cold winter temperatures that are used in the nursery industry; however, all are labor intensive, expensive and vary in effectiveness. Container stock also suffers from elevated summer root zone temperatures. Cultivar differences in the degree of summer injury have been reported. With increasing human population pressures and decreasing availability of fresh water supplies, the need for more water-efficient nursery cultural practices becomes increasingly important. Water and nutrient use efficiency are predominant factors restricting nursery container production. Cultural factors that improve root function and reduce root injury and container heat load are considered key to improving these efficiencies. This paper examines temperature stress issues and the effects of different nursery cultural environments such as conventional overwintering systems, conventional gravel production surfaces, pot-in-pot production, and retractable roof greenhouses.

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seashore paspalum, and finally bahiagrass. Tall fescue did not go dormant at any time but discolored during summer heat stress. The turfgrass species and cultivars differed in their spring green-up response at both locations ( Tables 8 – 9 ). Intra and

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The effect of increasing temperatures on the duration of postharvest flower development was determined for three specialty crop species: marguerite (Argyranthemum frutescens Webb ex Schultz-Bip.) `Butterfly' and `Sugar Baby'; swan river daisy (Brachycome hybrid Cass.) `Ultra'; and bacopa (Sutera cordata Roth.) `Snowflake'. Plants were grown in a greenhouse at 18 °C (65 °F) until flowering, and then transferred into a phytotron to determine heat tolerance. Plants were stored for 8 weeks at constant temperatures of 18, 23, 28, and 33 °C (65, 73, 82, and 91 °F) for 2-week intervals. Flower bud and flower number were recorded weekly. Sutera cordata `Snowflake' and B. hybrid `Ultra' had the greatest flower number at the 23 °C temperature, decreasing in the 28 °C environment. Argyranthemum frutescens `Butterfly' and `Sugar Baby' had greatest flower number at 28 °C, but flowers were of lower quality thanat 23 °C. Flower development of all cultivars ceased at 33 °C, at the end of 8 weeks at increasing temperatures, but when plants were returned to the 18 °C production greenhouse, flower development resumed. High temperatures (28 °C) reduce the postharvest performance of S. cordata, B. hybrid, and A. frutescens plants grown in hanging baskets; therefore, these species should be marketed as spring-flowering products since summer performance may be unsatisfactory in warm climates.

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( Gosselin and Trudel, 1986 ), water stress ( Ingram et al., 1986a ), nutrient deficiencies ( Johnson and Ingram, 1984 ), or impaired plant growth and development ( Martin and Ingram, 1988 ). One way to deal with heat stress is to use containers with porous

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A pawpaw regional variety trial (PRVT) was established at Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. in Apr. 1999 consisting of 28 commercially available pawpaw (Asimina triloba) varieties or advanced selections from the PawPaw Foundation (PPF; Frankfort, Ky.). Eight replicate trees of each selection, grafted onto seedling rootstocks, were planted in a randomized block design. The first two winters at the test planting site were unusually mild for the Finger Lakes region, with the lowest recorded temperatures above -16 °C (3.2 °F). Despite these mild winters, there was extensive winter mortality of some pawpaw varieties. Survival rates were >75% for 11 varieties, and were <40% for five other varieties. Poor establishment of grafted clonal pawpaws and insufficient pollination or fertilization of established pawpaws were important limitations of successful commercialization of this new fruit crop under conditions typical of upstate New York. Open mesh black plastic trunk guards provided adequate shade and protection for newly planted pawpaws, whereas translucent plastic tree-tubes caused heat stress and scorching of the young trees.

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