Winter squash are grown in northwestern Mexico for export to distant markets. During transport, fruits deteriorate and develop fungal rots. Squash (Cucurbita maxima Duch. `Delica') was given hot-water dips at 50C for 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 min and stored at 10 and 20C with 75% RH for 4, 8, and 12 weeks. The highest weight loss (11.3%) was in fruits without hot water treatment stored at 20C for 12 weeks—weight losses were 3.6%, 7.2%, and 10.2% in the 4-, 8-, and 12-week storage periods, respectively. At 10C, the weight losses were 3.4%, 6.8%, and 7.6% for the same periods, respectively. ß-carotene content increased from 36.2 to 54.2 mg/100 g after 4 and 8 weeks of storage, respectively, but declined to 42.8 mg/100 g after 12 weeks. Chlorophyll content decreased as temperature and storage period increased, changing from 16.7 to 10.8 mg·liter-1 at 10 and 20C and from 16.9 to 15.8 mg·liter-1 and 8.8 mg·liter-1 at 4, 8, and 12 weeks, respectively. Fruits had decay caused by Rhizopus and Aspergillus. Weight loss, ß-carotene and chlorophyll contents, and decay were not affected by length of hot-water treatment. General appearance was better in fruits stored at 10 than at 20C.
Rosa Marina Arvayo-Ortiz, Sergio Garza-Ortega, and Elhadi M. Yahia
Pablo Velasco, Rosa A. Malvar, Ana Butrón, Pedro Revilla, and Amando Ordás
Pink stem borer (Sesamia nonagrioides Lef.) is one of the most important insect pests of corn (Zea mays L.) in southern Europe. The objectives of this work were to determine the level of resistance in different sweet corn inbreds and to identify sources of resistance to ear feeding by the pink stem borer. Twenty-eight sweet corn (su1 and su1se1) inbreds and four resistant field corn (Su1Se1) inbreds were evaluated for ear resistance at different sowing dates, under two methods of artificial infestation. There were significant differences between infestation methods for ears with damaged grain, husks, cobs, and shanks. The inbred×infestation method interaction was significant for general appearance of the ear. The most resistant inbreds were identified by using mean comparisons and principal component analysis of ear damage traits. All inbreds were damaged. Hence, resistance was incomplete and in need of improvement. EP59, H3, I5125, IL767b, and V7726 were the most resistant sweet corn inbreds, which did not differ significantly from A635, the most resistant field corn inbred. General appearance of the ear appears to be a good indicator of pink stem borer resistance and can be used in preliminary evaluation. Variability exists in the resistance of these sweet inbreds to the pink stem borer and the use of field corn inbreds may not be necessary in the improvement of resistance, although further research is needed to determine if the sources differ in the pertinent genes conferring resistance.
Charles F. Forney and Roger E. Rij
Warm (20C) or cold (3C) broccoli florets (Brassica oleracea L., Italica Group) were sealed in bags of two types of nonperforated flexible polyvinylchloride film, TPM 87 or RMF 61, and kept at 5C for 7 days. Temperature of the warm florets cooled to 5C in ≈ 8 hours. Warm broccoli had 40% to 50% more CO2 and 25% to 30% less O2 than cold broccoli in packages of both film types 6 hours after sealing. After 48 hours, however, concentrations of CO2 in bags of cold and warm broccoli had reached a steady state of ≈ 14.5% in TPM 87 bags and 6% in RMF 61 bags. Concentrations of O2 were more variable. After 48 hours, O2 concentrations were ≈ 2% to 4% in TPM 87 bags and 5% to 10% in RMF 61 bags. Initially, warm florets were rated lower for color, turgidity, and general appearance than initially cold ones after 7 days at 5C. Objectionable off-odors were formed from florets held in TPM 87 packages that had O2concentrations of <1.5%.
Rosa Marina Arvayo-Ortiz, Sergio Garza-Ortega, and Elhadi M. Yahia
Winter squash is grown in the Northwest of Mexico for export to distant markets with risk of produce loss. A study was conducted to investigate its postharvest behavior as affected by hot water (50°C) for 0, 3. 6, 9 and 12 min, and stored at 10 or 20°C with 75% RH for 4, 8, and 12 weeks. The highest weight loss (11.35%) was in fruits without hot water treatment stored at 20°C for 12 weeks; at this temperature the weight loss was 3.65, 7.18, and 10.19% in the 4, 8 and 12 week storage period, respectively. At 10°C the weight loss was 3.41, 6.83 and 7.56% for the same period. Chlorophyll content decreased as temperature and storage period increased. β-carotene content showed no change at 10°C, but slightly increased after 8 and 12 weeks at 20°C. Fruits showed decay by Rhizopus and Aspergillus. Weight loss, chlorophyll content, and decay were not affected by length of hot water treatment. General appearance was better in fruits stored at 10°C than at 20°C.
Harry G. Simmons, Alisara Menakanit, Surawit Wannakrairoj, and Poonpipope Kasemsap
Bamboo has increasingly become a popular exterior ornamental plant because of its durability, versatility, and evergreen qualities in conditions of extreme temperature and moisture variations. Use as an interior foliage plant has been limited due to the difficulty of finding species adaptable to lower light levels. Nineteen species from seven genera (Bambusa, Cephalostachyum, Dendrocalamus, Gigantochloa, Schizostachyum, Thyrsostachys, and Vietnamosasa) were evaluated. Fifteen plants from each species were potted in like conditions (50% leaf mold; 50% topsoil; 5 g of 14–14–14 controlled-release fertilizer) and grown under a maximum daily photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) range between 1200 to 2000 μmol·m-2·s-1 for 6 weeks. Chlorophyll content of leaves was measured. The commercial quality of leaves, culms, and general appearance was also recorded. Light was then limited to a maximum PPFD of 150 to 300 μmol m-2s-1 for 6 weeks and all measurements were again recorded. Five species had significant increases in chlorophyll content after the 6-week period of reduced light levels. Species with a larger maturity size had a greater mortality percentage as well as lower quality leaf and overall appearance when grown under reduced light levels. Culm quality remained constant in 18 of the 19 species after the 6-week period. Vietnamosasa ciliata showed the greatest increase in chlorophyll levels as well as highest commercial quality of leaf and overall appearance.
Quality of stone fruit is defined by fruit size, color, firmness, flavor, shape, general appearance, adhesion and size of the stone and fruit surface characteristics (e.g. fuzz, abrasions, pest damage). Cultural practices, such as pruning, nutrition, irrigation, growth regulator usage and pesticide applications can influence these quality characteristics to a greater or lesser extent. Adequate potassium nutrition can improve soluble solids and fruit size in plums. Excess nitrogen fertilization can soften peaches. Well-timed calcium sprays are thought to improve the firmness of sweet cherries, as are applications of gibberellin. Ethylene synthesis inhibitor usage can alter the timing of ripening, reduce early fruit drop and improve storage. Irrigation scheduling is a tool that can be used to regulate final fruit size and firmness, as well as time of maturation. Selective pruning is used to structure a tree's architecture for improved light penetration to improve fruit size and color. These and other production practices will be discussed in relation to how they affect fruit quality in stone fruit.
Danielle Williams, Teddy Morelock, and Eddy Stiles
There are four southernpea breeding programs left in the United States: USDA-South Carolina, Louisiana, Texas and the largest at University of Arkansas. Selected breeding lines from these programs are grown in the Southernpea Cooperative Trial along with industry standards as checks. The yield trial is conducted in Alabama, Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, South Carolina, and Texas. Each location collects yield data; at the University of Arkansas-Fayetteville samples are also canned at the Department of Food Science Pilot Plant Facility. The process we use for canning southernpeas is similar to that used in the industry. Dry weights are recorded then soaked overnight in water. Imbibed weights are recorded after the peas are drained, blanched, and cooled. A weighed amount of peas are placed in each can; prepared brine (water, salt, and preservatives) is poured to the top of the can. The cans are sealed then cooked in a retort. The cans set a month before the tasting evaluation. For the tasting evaluation we use a minimum of 10 individuals for a consumer panel. Panelists rate pea color, liquor color, wholeness, texture, flavor, and the general appearance on a scale of 1–10, 10 being best. The industry standards are included, these are used as checks. This allows breeders to see how their lines look and taste as a canned product.
Thomas E. Marler and John H. Lawrence
been dubbed “typhoon forests” because general appearance at any time is defined by the most recent typhoons ( Stone, 1971 ). Native tree species possess traits that enable them to recover after TC damage, which is one reason that these species with
Thomas E. Marler, Anders Lindström, and Jack B. Fisher
injuries that occur during various horticulture activities. We additionally included C. elongata (Leandri) D. Yue Wang, C. hainanensis C.J. Chen, and C. pectinata Griff. because they are intermediate in susceptibility to injury. The general appearance
Thomas E. Marler and Nirmala Dongol
months and was robust by 28 months ( Fig. 1E and F ). Fig. 1. General appearance of Cycas micronesica seeds from emergence to maturity. ( A ) Megastrobili phenotype at 6 weeks following emergence. ( B ) Seed at 6 months. Gametophyte (g) and flotation (f