Fungal diseases have their greatest impact on citrus in Florida by reducing tree vigor, fruit yield, and quality. Given the complex etiology of these diseases, this software was developed to facilitate diagnosis of symptoms and to explain the dynamics of Alternaria brown spot of mandarins, greasy spot, melanose, Phytophthora brown rot, post-bloom fruit drop, and sour orange scab. CITPATH includes a diagnostic key to identify symptoms of the major fungal diseases of citrus foliage and fruit in Florida and a hypertext program containing a description and graphic display of symptoms, maps of geographic occurrence, diagrams of disease development, and management strategies. Users can also consult a list of citrus cultivars susceptible to specific diseases and a reciprocal list of diseases affecting specific cultivars. Chemical control methods are discussed briefly with reference to the current Florida Citrus Spray Guide, a hardcopy of which is included with the software purchase. Developed for commercial growers, county extension programs, citrus horticulture classes, and master gardeners, this software is available on CD-ROM disks containing other citrus databases and as a separate disk for MS-DOS-based computers.
Ozone treatment has many advantages for control of fungal diseases. There are no residue concerns, no registration is required, and it is non-specific, therefore potentially effective against a broad spectrum of pathogens. However, ozone is known to cause plant damage. There is little information available on either the ozone tolerance of floriculture crops or the levels required to kill plant pathogens under commercial conditions. Nine floriculture crops (begonia, petunia, Impatiens, Kalanchoe, pot roses, pot chrysanthemums, lilies, snapdragons and Alstroemeria) were subjected to increasing levels of ozone. Trials were conducted at 5 and 20 °C (90% to 95% RH) and ozone exposure was for 4 days for either 10 hours per day (simulating night treatment) or for 10 minutes every hour. Damage was assessed immediately after treatment and after an additional 3 days at room temperature in ozone-free air. Trials were terminated for the crop when an unacceptable level of damage was observed. Trials to determine the lethal dose for actively growing pathogens (Alternaria alternata, Alternaria zinniae and Botrytis cinerea) and fungal spores were conducted under identical conditions. Ozone tolerance varied with plant type and ranged between <0.2 and 3ppm. Generally, the crops surveyed were more susceptible to ozone damage at the low temperature. As a group, the bedding plants were the least tolerant. Fungal spores were killed at treatment levels between 0.8 and 2 ppm ozone. The actively growing fungal mycelium was still viable at 3 ppm ozone when the trial had to be terminated due to ozone-induced structural damage in the treatment chambers. Under the trial conditions, only the Kalanchoe would be able to tolerate the high levels of ozone required to kill the fungal spores.
Fourteen new zoysiagrass (Zoysia spp.) germplasm lines from parental crosses including Z. japonica (Steud.), Z. matrella (L.) Merr., and Z. pacifica (Goudswaard) were evaluated for susceptibility to large patch caused by the fungus Rhizoctonia solani Kühn anastomosis group (AG) 2-2 LP. The germplasm lines were compared with ‘Meyer’ (Zoysia japonica Steud.), the most widely used cultivar in the transition zone of the United States, under growth chamber and field conditions. Large patch susceptibility in the growth chamber study was estimated five days post-inoculation and thereafter for 25 days. Three pots of each line and ‘Meyer’ were randomly selected and rated for disease incidence by determining the percentage of individual shoots in each pot with distinct, water-soaked brown lesions on the leaf sheath. Field assessment of large patch susceptibility was carried out weekly and was by direct measurement of patch sizes as well as by digital image analysis of plots for the percentage of diseased turf. All 14 progeny had similar disease levels compared with ‘Meyer’ in the growth chamber, but only six consistently had disease levels as low as ‘Meyer’ in the field. Growth chamber results did not correlate to field results.
Resistance to blighting by Monilinia vaccinii-corymbosi (Reade) Honey was evaluated under greenhouse conditions in multiple populations of the diploid species Vaccinium boreale Hall & Aalders, V. corymbosum L., V. darrowi Camp, V. elliottii Chapm., V. myrtilloides Michx., V. myrtillus L., V. pallidum Ait., and V. tenellum Ait., as well as in accessions of the polyploid species 4x V. hirsutum Buckley and 6x V. corymbosum f. amoenum Aiton. Significant species differences were found in mean blighting levels averaged over 2 years, with values ranging from 3.5% for V. boreale to 49.2% for 2x V. corymbosum, compared with 27.5% for the resistant 4x V. corymbosum check, `Bluejay', and 64.3% for the susceptible 4x V. corymbosum check, `Blueray'. Wild Vaccinium species may serve as new sources of resistance to blighting, if resistance can be transferred easily and horticultural type recovered.
ANTHRACNOSE DISEASE Anthracnose, incited by the species Colletotrichum acutatum , is one of the major fungal diseases of strawberry affecting all parts of the plant during nursery and production stages ( Maas, 1998 ). Additional species of
Rust ( Puccinia sp.) is a common fungal disease of kentucky bluegrass (KBG; Poa pratensis L.), one of the most commonly used cool-season turfgrasses on athletic fields, recreation areas, sod farms, and residential lawns. Diseased turf typically
addition, it has been found resistant to other fungal diseases incited by Alternaria spp., Colletotrichum spp., and Cercospora spp., and it yields fruit over a longer period than varieties commonly grown at present in Bangladesh (M.A.T. Masud
, their cultivar hosts, and sample origin. Results Field observations and symptoms. A preharvest fungal disease survey on rambutan was conducted at the Waiakea Agricultural Experiment Station and at a local farm. Disease symptoms were visible on leaves
Commercial producers of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) in the mid-Atlantic region frequently experience losses of fruit size and quality from the fungal diseases powdery mildew (Erysiphe cichoracearum) and black rot (Didymella bryoniae). In addition to loss of fruit size in some cultivars, the diseases can result in poor quality handles (fruit stems) and pre- and postharvest decay. Since the pumpkins are grown for ornamental use, their appearance, size, and quality are important in marketing strategies. Applications of recommended fungicides during the growing season, although costly, reduce losses in fruit size and quality in susceptible cultivars during years in which the pathogens become established prior to fruit maturity. Larger-fruited cultivars, in general, benefit more from fungicide application than smaller-fruited types in fruit weight, although both benefit in improved handle quality. Cultivars with apparent tolerance to fungal diseases are identified for producers who choose not to use fungicides.