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; Konica Minolta Sensing, Tokyo, Japan). Leaf maximum photochemical efficiency (F v /F m ), photochemical yield [Y(II)] and electron transport rate (ETR) were measured with a fluorometer (MINI-PAM-II; Heinz Walz, Effeltrich, Germany) on the four largest

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are affected by the mode of action of mesotrione. Chlorophyll content and quantum yield of photosynthesis system II (PSII)–mediated electron transport are often measured for this purpose in physiological studies ( Ounis et al., 2001 ). The objective of

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electron transport chains in the chloroplasts can react with O 2 to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). The excess ROS may cause damage to the cell membrane through lipid peroxidation, proteins, and nucleic acids

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maximum photochemical efficiency ( F v / F m ), photochemical yield [Y(II)], and electron transport rate (ETR) were measured with a fluorometer (MINI-PAM-II; Heinz Walz, Effeltrich, Germany) on the two largest leaves of each plant. Leaf F v / F m was

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. III Faust, J.E. Higgins, A. Williams, J. 2004 The Ecke poinsettia manual. Ball Publ., Batavia, IL 10.1016/S0304-4165(89)80016-9 Genty, B. Briatais, J.B. Baker, N.R. 1989 The relationships between the quantum yield of photosynthetic electron transport

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membranes leads to the reduction of electron transport reactions, altered source sink relations, and reductions in pigments such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotenoids ( Benton and Cobb, 1997 ; Saladin et al., 2003 ; Vinit-Dunand et al., 2002

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of fungicide ( Fungicide Resistance Action Committee, 2020 ). Both fungicides interfere with the cellular respiration process by blocking the mitochondrial electron transport system. This results in inhibition of the cellular energy cycle, and

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SDHI class of fungicides, and pyraclostrobin belongs to the QoI class of fungicides ( FRAC, 2020 ). The SDHI and QoI fungicides block the electron transport system in fungal mitochondria, which interrupts the cellular energy cycle and, ultimately

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