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mitochondria electron transport inhibitors or METIs ( Ware and Whitacre, 2004 ; Yu, 2008 ). The mitochondrion (plural: mitochondria) is a membrane-bounded organelle that is associated with intracellular respiration. The mitochondrion is a major site of

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., 2002 ), since this technique delivers information regarding the saturation characteristics of electron transport, as well as being able to quantify overall photosynthetic performance ( Ralph and Gademann, 2005 ). A clear effect of low light intensity

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hydrogen (NADPH) via the electron transport chain, and a proton gradient across the thylakoid membrane drives adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthase, regenerating ATP. These energy-rich molecules—NADPH and ATP—provide the reducing power and chemical energy

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electron transfer between the primary and secondary quinones of PSII (see Abbaspoor et al., 2006 , and references cited therein). Interruption of photosynthetic electron transport inhibits adenosine 5′-triphosphate production and carbon fixation. If this

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were the same as the first experiment for the PM and PA treatments, respectively. The experiment was conducted once. Chlorophyll content, the ratio of variable to maximum chlorophyll fluorescence (F v /F m ), and electron transport rate (ETR) were not

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) and calculated using the formula of Moran (1982) . The ratio of variable to maximum chlorophyll fluorescence (F v /F m ) and electron transport rate (ETR) were measured and calculated with a Maxi-Imaging-PAM chlorophyll fluorescence measuring system

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the membranes directly and affect the electron transport of chloroplasts and mitochondria, leading to the electron leakage and the generation of ROS ( Begović et al., 2016 ; Pazin et al., 2015 ; Pereira et al., 2013 ; Qiu et al., 2018 ). The

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), which depends on the LA and photosynthetic rate of a single leaf ( Kaneko et al. 2022 ). Furthermore, the photosynthetic rate of a single leaf also depends on the maximum rate of carboxylation ( V cmax ), maximum rate of electron transport ( J max

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: soil amended with 5% or 10% (v/v) vermicompost. Fig. 6. Effect of vermicompost on spinach leaf photochemical efficiency (F v /F m ; A ), photochemical yield [Y(II); B ], and electron transport rate (ETR; C ) 35 d after transplanting. The values are

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mean ± se (n = 3). Table 5. Maximum rate of carboxylation (V cmax ), maximum rate of electron transport at saturating irradiance (J max ), and CO 2 compensation point (CCP) of tung tree seedlings grown under different light treatments. Leaf anatomic

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