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  • Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science x
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The effect of high-pressure washing (HPW) on the surface morphology and physiology of citrus fruit was examined. Mature white (Citrus paradisi Macf. `Marsh') and red (Citrus paradisi Macf. `Ruby Red') grapefruit, oranges (Citrus sinensis L. `Hamlin'), and tangelos (Citrus reticulata Blanco × Citrus paradisi Macf. `Orlando') were washed on a roller brush bed and under a water spraying system for which water pressure was varied. Washing white grapefruit and oranges for 10 seconds under conventional low water pressure (345 kPa at cone nozzle) had little effect on peel wax fine structure. Washing fruit for 10 seconds under high water pressure (1380 or 2760 kPa at veejet nozzle) removed most epicuticular wax platelets from the surface as well as other surface debris such as sand grains. Despite the removal of epicuticular wax, HPW did not affect whole fruit mass loss or exchange of water, O2, or CO2 at the midsection of the fruit. Analysis of the effect of nozzle pressure (345, 1380, or 2760 kPa), period of exposure (10 or 60 seconds), and wax application on internal gas concentrations 18 hours after washing showed that increasing nozzle pressure increased internal CO2 concentrations while waxing increased internal ethylene and CO2 concentrations and decreased O2 concentrations. An apparent wound ethylene response was often elicited from fruit washed under high pressures (≥2070 kPa) or for long exposure times (≥30 seconds).

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cytoplasmic debris, and the chromosome morphology was excellent, allowing for clear visualization of non-distorted chromosomes. All chromosomes of C. obcordata could easily be separated from each other with essentially no overlap ( Fig. 3 ). Well

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miscounted cellular debris. Counts were not conducted on lateral flowers within a cluster as a result of the high numbers of flowers of that type containing degenerated ovules. Fig. 3. Methods used to assess the number of ovules in individual pomegranate

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Triton X-100 wash had clearly defined, elongated, finger-like papillae; stigmatic surfaces were generally devoid of surface debris ( Fig. 2H ). Copious stigmatic exudate can obscure the fine structural details of the stigmatic surface in both fresh and

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% acetocarmine (Fluka 22000; Sigma-Aldrich, Schweiz, Switzerland) was immediately added and gently mixed with pollen mother cells (PMCs), removing the unnecessary debris with a needle. The slide was covered with a square cover glass and observed under a light

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intake. The fungus also releases toxins causing further damage to leaves ( Kiraly et al., 1977 ). In the case of severe infestation, strawberry plants die ( Löckener, 1995 ). V. dahliae overwinters in soil and plant debris as a dormant mycelium or black

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-2-phenylindole was added for DNA staining. After 2 min incubation, nuclei were passed through a 30-μm nylon filter to eliminate cell debris. The samples were analyzed using a flow cytometer (PA-I; Partec). Molecular characterization. SSR markers

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cellular debris using a soft, camel-hair brush, desorbed in deionized water (at least five changes), air-dried, and then weighed on an analytical balance. Osmotic potential. T o investigate whether the stylar end of fruit with neck shriveling may have

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supplements are provided, nutrients are largely derived from leaf senescence and shredded debris that becomes available after decomposition ( Mullins et al., 1992 ; Winkler et al., 1974 ). Harvested fruit represent a net nutrient loss as do nutrient losses

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degradation of soil debris ( Martinez et al., 2005 ). Class III includes the large family of secreted PODs in plants that are secreted into the cell wall or the surrounding medium and the vacuole. In the standard peroxidative cycle, these PODs catalyze the

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