Sanitation, which includes removing plant and growing medium debris, is an important component of any greenhouse or nursery pest management program. However, there is minimal quantitative information on how sanitation practices can reduce pest problems. In this study, conducted from May through Nov. 2005, we evaluated plant and growing medium debris as a source of insect pests from four greenhouses located in central Illinois. Two 32-gal refuse containers were placed in each greenhouse with a 3 × 5-inch yellow sticky card attached to the underside of each refuse container lid. Each week, yellow sticky cards and plastic refuse bags were collected from the containers and insects captured on the yellow sticky cards were identified. Insects captured on the yellow sticky cards were consistent across the four greenhouses with western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis), fungus gnats (Bradysia spp.), and whiteflies (Bemisia spp.) the primary insects present each week. Insect numbers, in order of prevalence on the yellow sticky cards, varied across the four locations, which may be related to the type of plant debris discarded. For example, extremely high numbers of adult whiteflies (range = 702 to 1930) were captured on yellow sticky cards in one greenhouse each month from August through November. This was due to the presence of yellow sage (Lantana camera), bee balm (Monarda didyma), garden verbena (Verbena × hybrida), common zinnia (Zinnia elegans), sage (Salvia spp.) and fuchsia (Fuschia spp.) debris that was heavily-infested with the egg, nymph, pupa, and adult stages of whiteflies. High western flower thrips adult numbers in the greenhouses were generally associated with plant types such as marguerite daisy (Dendranthema frutescens) and pot marigold (Calendula officinalis) disposed while in bloom with opened yellow flowers, which contained adult western flower thrips. Based on the results of this study, it is important that greenhouse producers timely remove plant and growing medium debris from greenhouses or place debris into refuse containers with tight-sealing lids to prevent insect pests from escaping.
go through another pathogen reduction step (such as composting) to become a Class A material suitable for use in gardens, parks, and greenhouses. Carbon-rich recyclable materials such as woody construction debris, woody storm debris, and horse manure
Solid particles in water such as sand, silt, clay, or organic debris can clog drip irrigation systems. Filters that remove these particles from the water are necessary, but expensive, for small-scale or part-time farmers. A falter that is functionally similar to commercial units can be built from a steel barrel and common plumbing supplies for about $100. Components and instructions to build such a falter are presented here.
. 633 ) conducted a study in four greenhouses over a 28-week period in which they collected plant and growing medium debris and captured insects on yellow sticky cards attached to the inside of 32-gal containers. Western flower thrips, fungus gnats, and
sustainable and economical option for containerized plant production. Hummel et al. (p. 325) produced composts from biosolids and woody wastes, including construction debris, storm debris, and horse waste. They screened and blended the composts with bark to
from the Dec. 2000 storm was ≈50% and 35% in Jan. 2007. Damage in 2000 consisted of limb breakage and split limb crotches described earlier. In 2007, about one-half of the debris was from compensatory shoots 3 to 4 inches in diameter that were 15 to 20
collected from these nurseries included 1) diseased plants showing symptoms such as dieback, root rot, shoot blight, leaf lesions, defoliation ( Fig. 1A–E ); 2) soil, gravel, and leaf debris from underneath the pots from a symptomatic area ( Fig. 2A–D ); 3
berries per centimeter. The number of pieces of dehiscent floral debris retained in each cluster was also counted ( Hed et al., 2009 ). A subsample of frozen berries from each experimental unit (≈500 g) was thawed in a water bath at 60 °C, then ground in a
most time-consuming task (data not shown). Irrigation and pruning were tied for second most time-consuming tasks, followed by debris removal (data not shown). Due to the different conditions on these roofs, the time spent on irrigation varied from zero
another bin for disposal was recorded. For the Paddock Vac, the time to pick up chestnuts and burs, sort them, move the equipment, and dump the burs and other debris was recorded. Nut numbers and their fresh weights were also recorded to calculate the time