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related to harvesting late-season ‘Valencia’ oranges, concerns about the effects of mechanical harvesting on tree health, and processor concerns about increases in the quantity of debris mixed with mechanically harvested fruit ( Roka et al., 2009

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In this field study, five preemergence and two postemergence herbicides were evaluated for their ability to hasten Meyer zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.) sod development when sod was established from the regrowth of rhizomes, sod strips, and loosened plant debris. Herbicide influence on zoysiagrass re-establishment was examined using two postharvest field preparation procedures as follows: area I was raked to remove most above-ground sod debris, whereas in adjacent area II sod debris was allowed to remain in place. Herbicides that controlled smooth crabgrass [Digitaria ischaemum (Schreb.) Muhl.] generally enhanced zoysiagrass cover by reducing weed competition. Meyer established from rhizomes, sod strips, and loosened plant debris, and treated with herbicides, had a rate of sod formation equivalent to that expected in conventionally tilled, planted, and irrigated Meyer sod fields. Effective smooth crabgrass control was achieved when the rates of most preemergence herbicides were reduced in the 2nd year. Chemical names used: dimethyl 2,3,5,6-tetrachloro-1,4-benzenedicarboxylate (DCPA); 3,5,-pyridinedicarbothioic acid, 2-[difluromethyl]-4-[2-methyl-propyl]-6-(trifluoromethyl)∼S,S-dimethyl ester (dithiopyr); [±]-ethyl 2-[4-[(6-chloro-2-benzoxazolyl)oxy]phenoxy] propanoate (fenoxaprop); 3-[2,4-dichloro-5-(1-methylethoxy)phenyl]-5-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-(3H)-one (oxadiazon); N-[1-ethylpropyl)-3,4-dimethyl-2,6-dinitrobenzenamine(pendimethalin);N3,N3-di-n-propyl-2,4-dinitro-6-[trifluromethyl)-m-phenylenediamine (prodiamine); and 3,7-dichloro-8-quinolinecarboxylic acid (quinclorac).

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that monitor indicator species germination and growth in the presence of leachates, extracts, or debris of potential allelopathic agents are acceptable ways of examining and understanding allelopathic potential ( Inderjit and Keating, 1999 ; Inderjit

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enzymatic removal of extracuticular debris, isolated cuticles were kept at 23 °C in distilled water containing 0.01% sodium azide (NaN 3 ) as an aid in controlling microbial growth ( Lichstein and Soule, 1943 ). To prepare for imaging, isolated cuticles were

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after harvest. Detachment force required to remove fruit; weight of leaf, stem, and fruit debris on the ground after harvest; and harvested yield were measured for the two treatments before harvest. Leaf area index, stem water potential, and water use

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through a 0.95-cm screen. Micronutrient sources included incorporating 10% by volume yard debris compost (2.1N–0.2P–0.5K–1.4Ca–0.3Mg–0.001B–0.004Cu–0.9Fe–0.03Mn–0.01Zn) (Rexius Co., Eugene, Ore.), 0.9 kg·m −3 Micromax micronutrient fertilizer (6Ca–3Mg–12S

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, without increasing pH significantly or providing excessive soluble salts and mineral N. For example, in Oregon, yard debris composts were applied as mulch (not incorporated) in two separate trials on a silt loam soil ( Sullivan and Bell, 2015 ; Sullivan

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Hurricane Andrew created over 17 yrs. of wood debris in a few hrs. in Dade County on 8-24-92. The rush to burn debris contributed to respiratory health problems. Through meetings with FEMA, Army Corps of Engineers, Dade County and environmental groups, SCS and SDSWCD pushed the idea of recycling this waste. Mulching and eventual composting of wood debris and using farmland as reuse sites were promoted. A joint pilot project established a team of mobile chippers coordinated by representatives of each agency. FEMA funded the project and chippers began working in groves after trees were trimmed and branches were stacked in tree rows. Over 600 ha. ware chipped and mulched during the 10 wk. contract period. More than 800 ha. are to be done under a new contract. Mulched material from other sites were delivered free to landowners who covered exposed roots of trees and replaced soil blown away by high winds. Over 200,000 m3 of mulch were delivered 5 mos. after the hurricane and 1.2 million m3 more were requested. For final pickup of debris, central grinding sites ware established and mulch was hauled to growers for mulch or compost.

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planting, yard debris compost (≈2 cm deep-centered on the row; 76 m 3 ·ha –1 ) and douglas fir sawdust (≈5 cm deep; 200 m 3 ·ha –1 ) were incorporated before forming the raised beds in Sept. to Oct. 2006. Immediately after planting, the beds were first

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.) Franco var. menziesii ; 360 m 3 ·ha −1 ]; b) a 4-cm-deep layer of municipal yard-debris compost (152 m 3 ·ha −1 ) covered by 5-cm-deep douglas fir sawdust (200 m 3 ·ha −1 ) (compost + sawdust); and c) weed mat [black, woven polyethylene groundcover

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