related to harvesting late-season ‘Valencia’ oranges, concerns about the effects of mechanical harvesting on tree health, and processor concerns about increases in the quantity of debris mixed with mechanically harvested fruit ( Roka et al., 2009
In this field study, five preemergence and two postemergence herbicides were evaluated for their ability to hasten Meyer zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.) sod development when sod was established from the regrowth of rhizomes, sod strips, and loosened plant debris. Herbicide influence on zoysiagrass re-establishment was examined using two postharvest field preparation procedures as follows: area I was raked to remove most above-ground sod debris, whereas in adjacent area II sod debris was allowed to remain in place. Herbicides that controlled smooth crabgrass [Digitaria ischaemum (Schreb.) Muhl.] generally enhanced zoysiagrass cover by reducing weed competition. Meyer established from rhizomes, sod strips, and loosened plant debris, and treated with herbicides, had a rate of sod formation equivalent to that expected in conventionally tilled, planted, and irrigated Meyer sod fields. Effective smooth crabgrass control was achieved when the rates of most preemergence herbicides were reduced in the 2nd year. Chemical names used: dimethyl 2,3,5,6-tetrachloro-1,4-benzenedicarboxylate (DCPA); 3,5,-pyridinedicarbothioic acid, 2-[difluromethyl]-4-[2-methyl-propyl]-6-(trifluoromethyl)∼S,S-dimethyl ester (dithiopyr); [±]-ethyl 2-[4-[(6-chloro-2-benzoxazolyl)oxy]phenoxy] propanoate (fenoxaprop); 3-[2,4-dichloro-5-(1-methylethoxy)phenyl]-5-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-(3H)-one (oxadiazon); N-[1-ethylpropyl)-3,4-dimethyl-2,6-dinitrobenzenamine(pendimethalin);N3,N3-di-n-propyl-2,4-dinitro-6-[trifluromethyl)-m-phenylenediamine (prodiamine); and 3,7-dichloro-8-quinolinecarboxylic acid (quinclorac).
that monitor indicator species germination and growth in the presence of leachates, extracts, or debris of potential allelopathic agents are acceptable ways of examining and understanding allelopathic potential ( Inderjit and Keating, 1999 ; Inderjit
enzymatic removal of extracuticular debris, isolated cuticles were kept at 23 °C in distilled water containing 0.01% sodium azide (NaN 3 ) as an aid in controlling microbial growth ( Lichstein and Soule, 1943 ). To prepare for imaging, isolated cuticles were
through a 0.95-cm screen. Micronutrient sources included incorporating 10% by volume yard debris compost (2.1N–0.2P–0.5K–1.4Ca–0.3Mg–0.001B–0.004Cu–0.9Fe–0.03Mn–0.01Zn) (Rexius Co., Eugene, Ore.), 0.9 kg·m −3 Micromax micronutrient fertilizer (6Ca–3Mg–12S
after harvest. Detachment force required to remove fruit; weight of leaf, stem, and fruit debris on the ground after harvest; and harvested yield were measured for the two treatments before harvest. Leaf area index, stem water potential, and water use
, without increasing pH significantly or providing excessive soluble salts and mineral N. For example, in Oregon, yard debris composts were applied as mulch (not incorporated) in two separate trials on a silt loam soil ( Sullivan and Bell, 2015 ; Sullivan
planting, yard debris compost (≈2 cm deep-centered on the row; 76 m 3 ·ha –1 ) and douglas fir sawdust (≈5 cm deep; 200 m 3 ·ha –1 ) were incorporated before forming the raised beds in Sept. to Oct. 2006. Immediately after planting, the beds were first
.) Franco var. menziesii ; 360 m 3 ·ha −1 ]; b) a 4-cm-deep layer of municipal yard-debris compost (152 m 3 ·ha −1 ) covered by 5-cm-deep douglas fir sawdust (200 m 3 ·ha −1 ) (compost + sawdust); and c) weed mat [black, woven polyethylene groundcover
The bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc), causal agent of black rot disease in crucifers was tagged with the luciferase gene complex of the marine bacterium Vibrio fisheri. The growth of the bioluminescent strain in plants and the environment can be monitored by its light emissions. Susceptible cabbage plants were either mist, wound or debris inoculated in the field, soil was inoculated with debris or with suspension culture of genetically engineered Xcc. Plant, soil and air samples will be taken at biweekly intervals to monitor the spread of the bioluminescent bacterium within as well as outside the environmental release site. The transfer of exotic DNA to other bacteria in the environment will also be studied.