fruit peel color ( Hall, 2013 ). In Florida, such treatments are only allowed on oranges, temples, tangelos, and K-Early citrus fruit (Florida Dept. of Citrus, 2014). While approved as safe in the United States, CR2, has been listed by the IARC and EU as
An instrument for in-the-field testing of citrus fruit firmness has been developed and tested. Linear deformation of a fruit along its diameter under the pressure of a constant force was found a good criterion of weight loss, and hence firmness of citrus.
The shrinkage rate of `Marsh' grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.), `Ambersweet' hybrid [(C. reticulata Blanco × C. paradisi Macf. × C. reticulata) × C. sinensis (L.) Osb.] and `Valencia' oranges [C. sinensis (L.) Osb.] was increased 50 % to 150% by washing the fruit with rotary brushes, but was not changed by hand-washing the fruit with cellulose sponges. Internal CO2 increased using both washing methods. Waxed fruit obtained from five Florida packinghouses and cleaned with rotary brushes and waxed had shrinkage rates the same as those of nonwashed controls. Thus, controlling the washing process is important to minimize shrinkage of fresh citrus fruit.
The effects of plant nutrients on citrus fruit quality cannot be considered independently of their effects on yield. In some cases quality can be improved by sacrificing some yield;however, from the overall economic point of view, it is usually advantageous to sustain maximum fruit yield even though there may be some sacrifice in fruit quality. This report emphasizes the nutrient effects on quality in the ranges in which we expect maximum yield to be sustained. If the deficient ranges for yield are included, the degree of effects on quality is greater. The nutrient ranges and effects discussed are primarily those encountered by the authors under California conditions.
Abscission is a natural plant process that culminates in the removal of organs from the parent plant. Control of abscission remains an important goal of agriculture, but events that initiate and transduce abscission signals have not been well defined. An understanding of these events may reveal pathways that can be targeted to control abscission. The compound 5-chloro-3-methyl-4-nitro-1H-pyrazole (CMNP) is a pyrazole-derivative that induces abscission selectively in mature citrus (Citrus sinensis) fruit when applied to the canopy. Peel contact is essential for efficacy. Previous work identified CMNP as an uncoupler. Timing of CMNP-induced events in citrus flavedo indicated that increased reactive oxygen species and electrolyte leakage occurred within 30 minutes and 2 hours after application, whereas reduced ATP content was measured 3 hours after application. Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and lipoxygenase (LOX) activities, and lipid hydroperoxide (LPO) levels increased in flavedo of citrus fruit peel treated with CMNP, indicating that the lipid signaling pathway was activated. A specific inhibitor of PLA2 activity, aristolochic acid (AT), reduced CMNP-induced increases in PLA2 and LOX activities and LPO levels in citrus flavedo and greatly reduced abscission, suggesting that production of phospholipid-derived signals influence abscission process. However, AT treatment failed to halt the reduction in ATP content, indicating that reduction in ATP preceded the increase in PLA2 activity and the biological response. The results demonstrate a link between lipid signaling and abscission in citrus.
Freeze-damaged ‘Marsh’ grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) and ‘Pineapple’ orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] fruit were sealed in polyethylene shrink film and stored for 6 weeks at 15°C in an attempt to prevent segment dehydration. Although the film greatly restricted water loss from the fruit, segment dehydration was similar to that observed for waxed fruit. During dehydration of freeze-damaged segments of ‘Valencia’ orange fruit, the relative water content of the adjacent mesocarp tissue increased. However, no differences were found in the soluble carbohydrate levels in mesocarp tissue adjacent to damaged and undamaged segments. The results indicate that the mesocarp tissue is not only in the pathway of water loss from free-damaged citrus fruit, but also accumulates water from damaged tissues. Furthermore, segment tissue membranes and walls appear to be differentially permeable to sugars and water.
Valencia oranges [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck cv. Valencia] and Marsh grapefruit [Citrus paradisi Macf.] were treated with single or double layers of coating. In cases where two coatings were applied, the first coating was a moisture-barrier wax; the second was either polyethylene wax or a mixture of shellac and resin ester. The inner coating reduced weight loss, and the outer coating imparted gloss. Fruit gloss, as measured by reflectometer, decreased more rapidly during 1 week at 20C with a single glossy coating than with the same coating applied as a second layer over a wax-based first coating. For citrus fruit, using resin ester or shellac as a high-gloss second coating tended to overly restrict the exchange of O2 and CO2; however, two layers of wax did not.
To compare to two types of Citrus fruit rind [i.e., soft type (satsuma mandarin, Citrus unshiu Marc.) and firm type (Hassaku, C. Hassaku Hort. Tanaka)], rind firmness and contents of cell wall polysaccharides were measured from August to January. In August, firmness was measured by a puncture test and found to be ≈3000g in both species. Firmness of satsuma mandarin decreased drastically with time from August to September and decreased slightly thereafter. In contrast, Hassaku firmness increased slightly from August to September, decreased from September to November, and fluctuated. Hassaku firmness, therefore, was significantly higher than satsuma mandarin firmness after September. We measured sugar content in each fraction after fractionalizing cell wall polysaccharides. In flavedo tissue, sugar content in cellulose fraction was the highest, followed by hot-water and EDTA fraction; hemicellulose fraction was the lowest. Although both species were almost the same in sugar content in cellulose and EDTA fraction in August, satsuma mandarin was significantly higher than Hassaku in January. These data showed that changing of rind firmness in citrus was related to the sugar content of cellulose and EDTA fraction in flavedo tissue. In albedo tissue, sugar content in the cellulose fraction was the highest, followed by hemicellulose and hot-water fraction, and EDTA fraction was the lowest. However the extent of seasonal fluctuation in albedo tissue was smaller than that of flavedo tissue, not having any relation to the changing of the firmness.
Various weak acids produce citrus fruit abscission in Florida. Erythorbic (ascorbic) acid (1-2%) or hexamic acid (1-2%), alone or combined with citric acid (total concn 1-2%), produced acceptable abscission but only of early and midseason oranges for cannery use. Phosphoric acid (1/2%) and ferric chloride (0.5-2.5%) produced erratic loosening, phytotoxicity, severe peel injury, and sometimes damaged spray equipment. The type of peel injury resulting from weak acid sprays may cause extensive rotting (40% or more) if extended periods of wet weather occur prior to picking. As weather forecasting is not sufficiently accurate to predict conditions more than 48 hr in advance, and fruit abscission normally occurs from 3-7 days following spraying, the periodic economic losses that could be expected under these conditions preclude their use in Florida.
citrus, fruit are picked and placed into picking sacks; the fruit are dumped from the picking sacks into 10-box (40 kg per box) field tubs, which are mechanically hoisted and dumped into a field transport vehicle commonly referred to as a “goat.” The goat