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Azlan Zahid, Md Sultan Mahmud, Long He, James Schupp, Daeun Choi, and Paul Heinemann

useful for apple trees ( He and Schupp, 2018 ; Zahid et al., 2021a ) because they can result in unwanted vegetative growth. Robotic pruning is a selective branch operation that can produce accurate cuts using an end-effector tool attached to the

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Omar Carrillo-Mendoza, Wayne B. Sherman, and José X. Chaparro

Most temperate fruit tree breeding programs pay major attention to fruit quality, chilling requirement, crop load, and tolerance to disease. In contrast, limited effort has been devoted to tree architecture and tree branching patterns ( Berthelemy

Open access

Coral Ortiz, Antonio Torregrosa, Enrique Ortí, and Sebastià Balasch

height was (mean ± sd ) 0.45 ± 0.05 m and the trunk diameter was 0.11 ± 0.01 m. The trees had three to five main branches. The canopy height of the aboveground level was 2.2 ± 0.2 m. The height from the ground to the canopy skirt was 0.9 ± 0.2 m. The

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John M. Dole and Harold F. Wilkins

Abbreviations: BD, `Annette Hegg Brilliant Diamond'; CR, `Eckespoint C-1 Red'; TR, free-branching plants propagated from restricted-branching `Eckespoint C-1 Red' scions after being grafted onto free-branching `Annette Hegg Brilliant Diamond' stocks

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Omar Carrillo-Mendoza, José X. Chaparro, and Jeffrey Williamson

Although growth forms in peach such as dwarf, pillar, weeping, and compact have been studied ( Scorza et al., 2006 ), little effort has been devoted to the study of tree architecture and branching. The standard peach tree has vigorous acropetal

Free access

Claudia Negrón, Loreto Contador, Bruce D. Lampinen, Samuel G. Metcalf, Theodore M. DeJong, Yann Guédon, and Evelyne Costes

Almond trees develop fruit laterally on extension shoots and short shoots called spurs on 2-year-old or older wood ( Kester et al., 1996 ). The pattern of shoots and spurs along branches is of major importance because they determine tree

Open access

Ryan M. Warner

, cultural information for producing greenhouse-grown stevia as a transplant or potted plant is lacking. As with many herbs grown for commercial sales in pots, it is desirable to produce a full, well-branched plant that is sold during the vegetative stage of

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Mara Grossman, John Freeborn, Holly Scoggins, and Joyce Latimer

., 2006 ). PGRs can increase branching and improve plant architecture in plants by releasing apical dominance and allowing dormant lateral buds to expand, which results in fuller, well-branched plants ( Cline, 1991 ). However, using PGRs can be challenging

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Liping Zhang, Chen Shen, Jipeng Wei, and Wenyan Han

Shoot branching, being a major agronomic trait affecting crop yield, is a topic of concern in cultivation ( Chen et al., 2016 ; Muhr et al., 2016 ). The regulation of shoot branching is an important aspect for crop improvement in agricultural

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Youping Sun, Guihong Bi, Genhua Niu, and Christina Perez

pruned or pinched on an annual basis to prevent them from being “leggy” and to promote lateral branching. Pruning or pinching is a common technique in hydrangea production to reduce plant size, stimulate lateral branching, improve overall appearance, and