Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 19 items for :

  • "bacterial spot" x
  • HortTechnology x
Clear All

in tomato. Florida accounted for nearly 40% of the total U.S. gross sales ( USDA, 2010 ). Among the many diseases that affect tomato, bacterial spot is one of the most troublesome ( Bouzar et al., 1999 ; Jones et al., 2004 ; O'Garro and Charlemagne

Full access

Bacterial spot epidemics, caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Doidge) Dye, continue to plague bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) growers in a number of southern and midwestern states. A 3-year study designed to compare cultivars and breeding lines under induced bacterial spot epidemic and bacterial spot-free conditions began soon after the first release of cultivars having the Bs2 gene for resistance to races 1 to 3 of the pathogen. Bacterial spot epidemics were created by transplanting `Merlin' plants (inoculated with races 1 to 3) into plots of each test cultivar at an isolated location in eastern Kentucky. Plots of the same trial entries at a second location were kept free of bacterial spot for 2 of the 3 years of trials; however, a moderate natural epidemic occurred at this location in 1996. Bacterial spot resistance had the greatest impact on yields and returns per acre in the inoculated trials. Cultivars with only Bs1 or a combination of Bs1 and Bs3 were highly susceptible in the inoculated trials. There were statistically significant and economically important differences in resistance among cultivars and breeding lines having the Bs2 gene; some were nearly as susceptible as susceptible checks. Although many Bs2-gene cultivars showed satisfactory levels of resistance, only a few were highly resistant, horticulturally acceptable, and comparable in yields to the best susceptible hybrids in a bacterial spot-free environment.

Full access

Bacterial spot epidemics, caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv), are still considered serious risks for commercial pepper (Capsicum annuum) growers in a number of eastern, southern and midwestern states. Newly released bell pepper cultivars with the Bs2 gene for resistance to Xcv races 1, 2, and 3 were compared in 2000 under bacterial spot-free and severe (natural) bacterial spot epidemic conditions in central and eastern Kentucky where similar trials had been conducted from 1995 to 1997. In addition to the replicated bell pepper trials, 49 hot and specialty pepper cultivars were grown for observation in single plots at the same two locations. As in previous trials, there were economically important differences in resistance and marketable yields among bell pepper cultivars having the Bs2 gene; some resistant cultivars were as susceptible as susceptible checks. Others were highly resistant in spite of the presence of Xcv races 3 and 6 in the eastern Kentucky trial. Only a few were highly resistant with excellent fruit quality. With a few notable exceptions, most of the hot and specialty cultivars were very susceptible to bacterial spot. Two of the three new jalapeño cultivars carrying Bs2 were highly resistant to bacterial spot and high yielding under severe epidemic conditions.

Full access

The impact of a single hail storm injury in combination with bacterial spot caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria was assessed on three commercial pepper (Capsicum annuum) cultivars—King Arthur, Jupiter, and Rebell. In addition, the effectiveness of copper plus maneb sprays on hail-damaged plants to suppress bacterial spot was evaluated. A hail storm of ≈5-min duration severely damaged and defoliated the pepper plants. Severe bacterial spot was observed 10 days later on all plants. Disease ratings taken 2 weeks after the hail storm were significantly greater than ratings before the storm. Unsprayed plots of all three cultivars had the greatest disease and the least yield. Plots sprayed weekly (7-day schedule) had a significantly greater yield and less disease compared to unsprayed and biweekly sprayed (14-day schedule) plots for all three cultivars. The combination of hail damage and bacterial spot resulted in a 6-fold reduction in yield in the absence of copper plus maneb sprays and a 2-fold reduction with weekly sprays when compared to the previous season with no hail injury, but similar levels of bacterial spot disease. Disease ratings were less and yields were greater for `King Arthur', than for `Jupiter' and `Rebell'. A judicious copper plus maneb spray program can suppress bacterial spot and help recovery of a young pepper crop when hail damage occurs.

Free access

Multidisciplinary integrated pest management (IPM) teams from seven states in the southeastern United States (Alabama, North Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee) met to develop standards for adopting IPM in fresh-market tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) production. Teams were composed of growers, private consultants, extension personnel, and faculty. IPM practices available for use on tomatoes in the southeastern United States were identified and a survey to assess the current level of adoption of IPM practices was developed. The survey also allowed growers to identify insect, disease, and production problems; beneficial technology and research developments; and other information relevant to IPM adoption. In northern Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, North Carolina, and South Carolina, IPM adoption by tomato growers was classified as medium or high on >75% of the fresh-market tomato acreage surveyed. It appears these states may have met the federal mandate for IPM adoption. Tomato producers listed early blight, late blight, bacterial spot, bacterial speck, and bacterial wilt as the main disease problems; tomato fruit worm, thrips, and aphids as the primary insect problems; and poor weather conditions, government regulation, and labor as their primary production problems. Twenty-six percent of the producers throughout the region felt that the development of insect- and disease-resistant varieties would be most helpful to increase production.

Full access

diligent application of copper-based bactericides. Field studies in Florida examined the effects of early shoot pruning on bacterial spot infection of tomato plants. Vallad and Santos (p. 847) concluded that light shoot pruning did not reduce bacterial

Full access

. Satanek, A. Snyder, J.C. 2001 Bacterial spot resistance, yield, and quality of bell and specialty peppers HortTechnology 11 4 648 657 10.21273/HORTTECH.11.4.648 U.S. Department of Agriculture 2004 2002 Census of agriculture, Vol. 1, Chapter 2: New England

Full access

sensitivity analysis examined cost reduction for evaluation of the disease bacterial spot caused by Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni ( Garita-Cambronero et al., 2018 ). Marker tests that accurately select for bacterial spot resistance will result in cost

Open Access

). In Vietnam, the major chile pepper diseases include ChiVMV, phytophthora root rot ( Phytophthora capsici ), bacterial wilt ( Ralstonia solanacearum ), bacterial spot ( Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria ), and anthracnose ( C. scovillei and C

Open Access

, and TMV ( Johnny’s Selected Seed, 2019 ; Kemble, 2019 ). ‘PS 09979325 X10R ® ’ is an F 1 hybrid with resistance to bacterial spot races 0 to 10, as well as, Tobamovirus tolerance ( Seminis Vegetable Seeds, 2018 ). ‘Red Knight X3R ® ’ pepper is

Open Access