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Joseph Thomas

Floriculture is growing at a frenetic pace in India. From a few units in 1990, nearly hundred units are either fully operational or at various stages of implementation. Almost seventy of these produce rose for the cut flower export market. The average unit size is two hectare under poly-cover. Anthurium, carnation, chrysanthemum, orchids and gerbera comprise the other cut flower producing units. Technology has come mostly from Holland, with Israel now giving severe competition to the Dutch. Germany, France, United Kingdom, and New Zealand are the other countries involved in technology transfer. Many units have the fan and pad system for temperature control along with drip irrigation and computer mediated operations. Most units use natural soil as the medium of growth whereas some have a combination of sand and natural soil and a few have adopted complete sand bed culture as practiced by Israeli growers. These hybrid as well as the state-of-the-art floriculture technologies are competing for the Indian market and the next few years will determine the system that is most suitable for adoption under local conditions. The Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA), a wing of the Commerce Ministry of the Government of India, and the National Horticulture Board have indeed provided substantial support for the growth of Indian floriculture Industry. Meanwhile, more and more entrepreneurs are, on their own, setting up cold storages and operating cold trucks near major airports to maintain appropriate temperatures from harvest to destination. It is widely expected that more than 50% of the existing floriculture units will make good whereas the remaining may not survive either due to sourcing of unsuitable technologies or lack of expertise in floriculture production and management as well as international marketing prowess. There is also consensus that no single foreign technology giver is capable of meeting adequately the total needs in the Indian context and often it is a matter of the collaborators learning together. What seems certain is that India will, by the year 2000, be a major player in international floriculture because of the diverse agroclimatically suitable locations, lower labor cost, and talented human resource.

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Greg McCollum and Kim D. Bowman

The Indian River district of Florida is the world’s major production region for grapefruit ( Citrus paradisi Macf.), and Indian River grapefruit are valued for their high quality. In contrast to the deep, well-drained sandy soil characteristic of

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John M. Ruter

[ Erwinia amylovora (Burr.) Winslow et al.] ( Ruter, 2004 ). ‘RutRhaph1’ Indian Hawthorn ( R. umbellata ) is an attractive dwarf evergreen shrub with white flowers and excellent disease resistance that has been released by the University of Georgia. Origin

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Marcio Eduardo Canto Pereira, Steven A. Sargent, Charles A. Sims, Donald J. Huber, Celso Luiz Moretti, and Jonathan H. Crane

Avocado is a climacteric fruit ( Eaks, 1978 ) characterized by the accumulation of oil while attached to the plant and by various potential cancer-preventing phytochemicals ( Ding et al., 2007 ). There are three known races of avocado: West Indian

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Rhuanito S. Ferrarezi, Arun D. Jani, H. Thomas James III, Cristina Gil, Mark A. Ritenour, and Alan L. Wright

selection ( Bowman et al., 2016 ). Similar research focusing on grapefruit has only recently begun in the Indian River Citrus District, a region historically dominated by grapefruit but that is well-suited for sweet orange production ( USDA, 2020 ). Given

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Stephanie G. Harvey, Heather N. Hannahan, and Carl E. Sams

Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) is the predominant isothiocyanate produced by damaged tissues of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea (L) Czerniak). This study investigated Indian mustard and AITC mediated suppression of mycelial growth and sclerotial germination of Sclerotium rolfsii Saccardo, a common soilborne pathogen. Indian mustard (IM) treatments of 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.6, 1.0, 2.0, 4.1, 5.1, 10.2, 20.4, 40.8, 81.6, and 163.3 g·L-1 (weight of reconstituted mustard per liter of air) were evaluated for suppression of mycelial growth. Treatment effect was evaluated by measuring the radial growth of mycelia. Sclerotia were placed in culture tubes containing 18 g autoclaved soil and covered with an additional 5 g soil. AITC at concentrations of 0, 4.0, 16.0, 64.0, 256.0, 1024.0, or 4096.0 μmol·L-1 was injected into the tubes. Treated sclerotia were removed from tubes and plated on potato dextrose agar to determine viability. Mycelial growth was inhibited with IM treatments (P < 0.01). Inhibiting concentrations (IC) of IM for mycelial growth inhibition of 50% and 90% were 0.7 and 1.0 g·L-1, respectively, with death resulting with >2 g·L-1. Inhibition attributable to AITC alone was lower than that achieved by IM producing equivalent amounts of AITC. Germination of sclerotia was negatively correlated with AITC concentration (r = 0.96; P < 0.01). The IC50 and IC90, of AITC were 249.0 and 528.8 μmol·L-1, respectively, at 42 hours. The lethal concentration for sclerotia was not reached; only suppression occurred at the highest treatment concentrations. Sclerotium rolfsii mycelia were sensitive to the IM volatiles and were suppressed at low concentrations. Sclerotia were more resistant than the mycelia and required higher concentrations of AITC to suppress germination.

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Timothy K. Broschat and Henry M. Donselman


West Indian mahogany [Swietenia mahagoni (L.) Jacq.] grown outdoors under 63% shade in southern Florida exhibited 3 distinct growth phases during the autumn and winter months. During the first phase (September through November), long-day conditions enhanced growth beyond that of natural daylength plants. In the 2nd phase (December through February), plants were essentially quiescent under both photoperiodic regimes in response to cool temperatures. In the 3rd phase (beginning in March), both long-day and natural daylength plants resumed growth at comparable rates. Thus, extending the photoperiod increases the growth rate in the autumn, but has little effect thereafter.

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San-Gwang Hwang, Yi-Ying Li, and Huey-Ling Lin

land are devoted to wax apple [ Syzygium samarangense (Blume) Merrill & Perry] cultivation, with 70% to 80% of wax apple tree branches pruned annually to achieve off-season production. Additionally, around 2048 ha of land in Taiwan are used for Indian

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Adrian D. Berry, Steven A. Sargent, Marcio Eduardo Canto Pereira, and Donald J. Huber

Hybrid avocado cultivars of Indian and West Indian-Guatemalan origin are the main types grown in tropical production areas around the world. More than 60 cultivars are grown in southern Florida, permitting an extended harvest season from May to

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Brian J. Boman

A study was initiated in the 1997-98 production season to evaluate the effects of salinity on grapefruit yield and fruit quality in the Indian River area of Florida. The experiment was conducted on `Ray Ruby' grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) planted in 1990 on `Carrizo' citrange (C. sinensis × Poncirus trifoliata) and `Swingle' citrumelo (C. paradisi × P. trifoliata) rootstocks. Trees were planted on 15.2-m-wide (50 ft) double-row beds at a spacing of 4.6 m (15 ft) in-row × 7.3 m (24 ft) across-row [286.6 trees/ha (116 trees/acre)]. The control treatment was irrigated via microsprinkler emitters with water from a surficial aquifer well with an electrical conductivity (EC) of 0.7 dS·m-1. Higher irrigation water salinity levels were achieved by injecting a sea water brine mixture into the supply water to achieve ECs of 2.3, 3.9, and 5.5 dS·m-1. A wide range of rainfall and irrigation conditions occurred during the years encompassed by these studies, with rain totaling 1262, 1294, 1462, and 964 mm (49.7, 50.9, 57.6, and 38.0 inches) for 1997, 1998, 1999, and 2000, respectively. Salinity level had little effect on internal juice quality parameters [total soluble solids (TSS), acid, or juice content] at time of harvest. One of the most visible effects of irrigation with high salinity water was the damage to leaves, with leaf chloride (Cl) levels increasing about 0.14% for each 1.0 dS·m-1 increase in EC of the irrigation water for trees on `Carrizo' citrange and 0.02% for trees on `Swingle' citrumelo. For both rootstocks, the number of fruit and the size of the fruit decreased with increasing salinity in the irrigation water. The non-salinized trees had significantly larger fruit compared to the rest of the treatments. In the very dry 2000-01 season, trees on `Carrizo' irrigated with 0.7 dS·m-1 water had about 50% more fruit size 36 [fruit count per 0.028-m3 (4/5 bu) carton] or larger than trees watered with 3.9 or 5.5 dS·m-1 water. For trees on `Swingle' rootstock, trees irrigated with 0.7 dS·m-1 water had 150% to 200% more size 36 and larger fruit than trees watered with 2.3 dS·m-1 water. Over the four seasons, average yields for `Carrizo' were reduced 3200.0 kg·ha-1 (2855 lb/acre) per year for each 1.0 dS·m-1 increase in EC of the irrigation water. For `Swingle' rootstock, the reduction was 2600.3 kg·ha-1 (2320 lb/acre) per year for each 1.0 dS·m-1 increase in EC of the irrigation water. These reductions averaged 7% (`Swingle') and 6% (`Carrizo') for each 1.0 dS·m-1 increase in salinity of the irrigation water.