Field and laboratory studies were conducted to investigate the mechanisms of weed suppression by cover crops. High-performance liquid chromatograph analysis and a seed germination bioassay demonstrated that rye (Secale cereale L.) can be leached of its allelochemicals, redried, and used as an inert control for separating physical suppression from other types of interference. In a field study, rye, crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum L.), hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), and a mixture of the four species suppressed the emergence of eastern black nightshade (Solanum ptycanthum Dun.). Crimson clover inhibited the emergence of eastern black nightshade beyond what could be attributed to physical suppression alone. The emergence of yellow foxtail [Setaria glauca (L.) Beauv.] was inhibited by rye and barley but not by the other cover crops or the cover crop mixture.
Although there is increasing interest in reducing the use of nitrogen (N) fertilizers due to the potential of unused N causing pollution of surface and groundwater, N is a major nutrient for plant growth. Our objective was to determine the potential of using winter legume cover crops to meet the N needs of seedless watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), a potential cash crop for farmers in Virginia. Fruit number, fruit weight, fruit yield, and fruit quality traits (flesh to rind ratio, water content, total soluble solids, sugar content, and pH) of seedless watermelons were evaluated in replicated experiments in Virginia at three locations during 1997-98 and two locations during 1998-99 following cover crop treatments consisting of crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum), hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), crimson clover + rye (Secale cereale), hairy vetch + rye, and a bareground control treatment that received 100 lb/acre (112 kg·ha-1) of N. At all five locations, the bareground control treatment resulted in fewer fruit [1803 fruit/acre (4454 fruit/ha)], lower fruit weight [9.8 lb (4.5 kg)], and lower fruit yield [8.9 tons/acre (20.0 t·ha-1)] compared to the four cover crop treatments. The crimson clover + rye and hairy vetch treatments resulted in highest numberof fruit [2866 and 2657 fruit/acre (7079 and 6563 fruit/ha), respectively], whereas the highest fruit yield was obtained following hairy vetch [21.2 tons/acre (49.8 t·ha-1)], hairy vetch + rye [20.3 tons/acre (45.5 t·ha-1)], and crimson clover + rye [19.6 tons/acre (43.9 t·ha-1)]. Cover crop treatments did not affect the quality of watermelon flesh. The seedless watermelon fruit averaged 1.4 flesh: 1 rind ratio, 90% water content, 9.5% total soluble solids, 8.0% sugar, and a pH value of 5.9. These results indicated that legume cover crops, such as crimson clover and hairy vetch, can be successfully used to produce seedless watermelons, in a no-till system, without any use of N fertilizers with dryland conditions.
Hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth), crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum L.), and rye (Secale cereale L.) and mixtures of rye with hairy vetch and/or crimson clover were compared for no-tillage production of staked, fresh-market tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) on raised beds. All cover crops were evaluated both with or without a postemergence application of metribuzin for weed control. Biomass of cover crop mixtures were higher than that of the hairy vetch monocrop. Cover crop nitrogen content varied little among legume monocrops and all mixtures but was lower in the rye monocrop. The C:N ratio of legume monocrops and all mixtures was <30 but that of the rye monocrop was >50, suggesting that nitrogen immobilization probably occurred only in the rye monocrop. Marketable fruit yield was similar in the legume monocrops and all mixtures but was lower in the rye monocrop when weeds were controlled by metribuzin. When no herbicide was applied, cover crop mixtures reduced weed emergence and biomass compared to the legume monocrops. Despite weed suppression by cover crop mixtures, tomatoes grown in the mixtures without herbicide yielded lower than the corresponding treatments with herbicide in 2 of 3 years. Chemical name used: [4-amino-6-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-3-(methylthio)-1,2,4-triazin-5(4H)-one](metribuzin).
Over a 3-year test period a system of multiple cropping using minimum tillage was compared with conventional methods. The minimum tillage operation consisted of rebuilding raised beds in November of each year and planting successive crops with no preparation beyond that required to remove residues of the preceding crop. Using a cropping sequence of crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum), sweet corn (Zea mays, cv. Aristogold Bantam Evergreen), and southern peas (Vigna sinensis, cv. Calhoun Purple Hull), yields obtained with minimum tillage were equal or superior to those obtained using conventional methods. In addition, minimum tillage left enough time annually to produce a fourth crop of Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris, cv. Earlytop 16).
Annual legume ground covers were evaluated in pecan (Carya illinoinensis) orchards to supply nitrogen and increase beneficial arthropods. Treatments were established at two sites, each with 5 ha of a `Dixie' crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum) /hairy, vetch (Vicia villosa) mixture and 5 ha of grass sod. Data indicated that the legume mixture supplied over 100 kg·ha-1 N to the pecan trees. Beneficial arthropods were greater in orchards with legume ground covers than in orchards with a grass groundcover. Lady beetles and green lacewings were the most important spring predators, and green lacewings were the most important fall predator. The Species distribution on the ground covers differed from that in the canopy. Coleomegilla maculata lengi, Hippodamia convergens and Coccinella septempunctata were the most abundant lady beetle species in the legume ground covers, and Olla v-nigrum, Cycloneda munda, and Hippodamia convergens were the most abundant species in the pecan canopies. Beneficial arthropods appeared to suppress injurious pecan aphids.
Crimson clover Trifolium incarnatum L.) was used as a N source for sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.]. Treatments were designed to compare estimated N delivery by clover incorporation amounts of N delivered by inorganic fertilizer. Plants were sampled every 14 days and sectioned into four parts: shoots, stem tips, fibrous and storage roots. Dry matter content was significantly influenced by time. Total plant dry matter was lowest in the highest inorganic N treatment. Nitrogen concentration (DWB) decreased over time and was highest in the highest inorganic N treatment. Similar vine weights were noted in N and clover treatments while number of storage roots per plant was unaffected by treatment as was weight per storage root, which increased linearly over time. No significant difference existed between the high and low N application treatment or late clover incorporation treatment in any grade of storage roots except culls, which were 90% lower in clover treatments than in N fertilizer treatments.
Renewed interest in soil conservation over the past decade has led to greater research efforts in the area of living mulch cropping systems. However, crop/mulch competition continues to present challenges. The objective of this study was to determine what effect two types of chemical growth suppressants (Mycogen 6121—an herbicidal soap, and Royal Slo-grow—a soil plant growth regulator) had on the water-use efficiency, nutrient use, and soil-shading ability of two annual living mulches, ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) and crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum). Two greenhouse experiments were performed in sand culture using a modified Hoagland's soap, one rate of growth regulator, and a mechanical treatment of mowing. Significant differences in nutrient use and soil-shading ability were obtained. The second experiment (69 days) replicated the ryegrass treatments less one rate of soap and included the legume crimson clover with one rate of soap and one rate of growth regulator. Results from both experiments will be discussed.
A low-input sustainable agricultural system for the production of staked, fresh-market field tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) is described. The system uses winter annual cover crops to fix N, recycle leftover nutrients, produce biomass, and prevent soil erosion throughout the winter and spring. Yields of tomato plants grown in hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth), crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum L.), and rye (Secale cereale L.) plus hairy vetch mulches were higher than those grown in the conventional black polyethylene (BP) mulch system in 2 of 3 years. Fruit were heavier with the plant mulches than with BP mulch. Eight weeks after transplanting, N levels in tomato leaves were higher with plant than with BP mulch, although the plant mulch plots received only 50% of the N applied to the BP plots. The cover crops had no effect on populations of five phytoparasitic nematode species.
The usefulness of cover crops for weed management in strawberries were evaluated. Wheat (Triticum aestevum L.), rye (Secale cereale L.), and crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum L.) were grown in individual pots then killed by tillage or herbicide and followed in the same pots by plantings of bermuda grass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.], yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L.), crabgrass [Digitaria ischaemum (Schreb.) Schreb. ex Muhl.], or strawberries (Fragaria ×ananassa `Cardinal'). Rye and wheat tilled into the medium generally increased the growth of strawberries and decreased the growth of bermuda grass. Rye and wheat residues appeared to suppress growth of weeds and strawberries when the residues remained on the medium surface. Crimson clover had little affect on the growth of weeds or strawberries. Yellow nutsedge and crabgrass were not significantly affected by cover crop residues.