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The effects and interactions of water stress and nutrient solution on water relations and concentrations of amino acids, organic acids and sugars in xylem fluid of `Methley' plum (Prunus salicina Lindl.) and `Carolina Beauty' crape myrtle (Lagerstroemia indica L.) during midday were determined. Container-grown plants were irrigated with water or nutrient solution (i.e., osmolarity = 138 mm) for 15 days, then irrigation was either continued or terminated for the next 5 days. The experiments were analyzed as factorial designs for each species separately, with the nutrient solution and irrigation status the last 5 days as the main factors. Xylem fluid tension increased ≈ 2- to 3-fold and leaf conductance to water vapor and transpiration were reduced ≈ 10-fold by withholding irrigation for both species; plant water relations of L. indica were also influenced by the nutrient solution. For both species, the osmolarity of xylem fluid was not altered by withholding irrigation. The predominant organic compounds quantified in both species were amides (i.e., glutamine and asparagine), arginine, and citric and malic acids. Sugars represented a small proportion (i.e., generally ≤ 1%) of total osmolarity. Irrigation altered the chemical profile of amino acids and organic acids to a greater degree than the nutrient solution. Water stress induced a 3-fold increase in total organic acids in xylem fluid of both species. The osmolarity and the concentration of most organic compounds in xylem fluid of P. salicina were not significantly affected by the nutrient solution. Arginine increased markedly in concentration by withholding irrigation or with the application of nutrient solution for L. indica. The concentration of most organic compounds did not vary greatly in response to variations in soil water or nutrient status. In conclusion, soil water-or nutrient-mediated changes in plant water relations exceeded changes in xylem fluid chemistry.

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We investigated the effects of three seasonal atmospheric ozone (0,) concentrations on fruit quality, internal breakdown, weight loss, cuticle structure, and ripening characteristics of plum fruit from 3-year-old `Casselman' trees in the 1991 season. Trees were exposed to 12-hour daily mean O3 concentrations of 0.034 [charcoal-filtered air (CFA)], 0.050 [ambient air (AA)], or 0.094 [ambient plus O3 (AA+O)] μl·liter-1 from bloom to leaf-fall (1 Apr. to31 Oct. 1991). Fruit quality and internal breakdown incidence measured at harvest and after 2, 4, and 6 weeks of storage at 0C were not affected by any of the O3 treatments. Following an ethylene (C2H4) preconditioning treatment, the rate of fruit softening, C2H4 production, and CO, evolution was higher for plums harvested from the AA + O than from those grown in CFA. Weight loss of fruit from the AA + O exceeded that of fruit from CFA and AA. Anatomical studies of mature plums indicated differences in wax deposition and cuticle thickness between fruit grown in AA + O, AA, and CFA. Differences in gas permeability, therefore, may explain the difference in the ripening pattern of `Casselman' plum fruit grown in high atmospheric O3 partial pressures.

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Abstract

Tissue cultures of ‘Calita’ Japanese plum started from 5 to 7 mm long shoot tips proliferated at a rate of 10:1 to 20:1 per month when grown on a modified Murashige and Skoog medium with 3% sucrose, 0.75% agar and (in mg/liter) 0.4 thiamine HCl, 100 myo-inositol, 1.0 6-benzylamino purine (BA), 0.1 gibberellic acid (GA3) and 0.1 indolebutyric acid (IBA). Best rooting results were obtained with 2 or 4 mg/liter indolebutyric acid (IBA) at 21°C; raising the temperature to 26° or 30° slowed and decreased rooting unless 0.1 mg/liter GA3 was included in the medium. Activated charcoal in the medium drastically reduced rooting. Rooted cuttings were easily established in soil.

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Diploid plums (Prunus L. sp.) and their progenitor species were characterized for randomly amplified polymorphic DNA polymorphisms. Bootstrap analysis indicated the variance of genetic similarities differed little when the sample size was >80 markers. Two species from China (Prunus salicina Lindl. and P. simonii Carr.) and one species from Europe (P. cerasifera Ehrh.) contributed the bulk (72% to 90%) of the genetic background to the cultivated diploid plum. The southeastern plum gene pool was more diverse than those from California, Florida, or South Africa because of the greater contribution of P. cerasifera and P. angustifolia Marsh. to its genetic background.

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Four greenhouse leaf inoculation methods for screening Japanese plum (Prunus salicina L. and hybrids) for resistance to Xanthomonas campestris pv. pruni (Smith) Dye were compared for repeatability, ability to differentiate among plant genotype responses, and correlations with field ratings. Clonally propagated trees were inoculated artificially in a greenhouse by immersing leaves in 2.5 × 108 cfu/ml inoculum (DIP), rubbing the adaxial side of leaves with a slurry of 2.5 × 108 cfu/ml inoculum and Carborundum powder (CARB), infiltrating leaves with 5 × 105 cfu/ml inoculum using a needle-less syringe (INFS), and infiltrating with 5 × 106 cfu/ml inoculum (INF6). No greenhouse method was superior in all assessment categories. The CARB method was most repeatable (t = 0.78) but had a low Spearman's correlation (rs = 0.29), indicating that greenhouse rankings did not correspond closely with field rankings. The INF6 method was unsuitable because it did not differentiate between plant genotypes. The DIP method appeared most suitable, having moderate repeatability (t = 0.46) for four observations per leaf and moderate Spearman's correlation with field performance (rs = 0.56). The INF5 method may be appropriate for identifying bacterial spot resistance that is associated with resistance in the leaf mesophyll.

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Fruits of `Bing' cherry (Prunus avium L.), `Red Jim' nectarine (Prunuspersica L.), `Angeleno' plum (Prunus salicina, L.), `Yellow Newtown' and `Granny Smith' apples (Malus domestica Borkh.), and `20th Century' pear (Pyrus serotina L.) were treated with 0.25% or 0.02% O2 (balance N2) at 0, 5, or 10C to study the effects of these insecticidal low-O2 atmospheres on their postharvest physiology and quality attributes. Development of alcoholic off-flavor was associated with ethanol accumulation, which was the most common and important detrimental effect that limited fruit tolerance to low O2. Relatively higher storage temperature (T), higher respiration rate (R), and greater resistance to gas diffusion (r) enhanced while relatively higher O2 concentration (C) and higher soluble solids concentration (SSC) reduced off-flavor development. Using a SAS computer program to do multiple regression analysis with T, C, R, r, and SSC as variables, models were developed for prediction of fruit tolerance to insecticidal low-O, atmospheres. Comparison of fruit tolerances and published information on the times required to completely kill specific insects by O2 levels at or below 1% suggests that low-O2 atmospheres have a good potential for use as postharvest quarantine treatments for some fruits.

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Flower buds of 20 Prunus species showed quite different strategies to cope with low temperatures. Buds of most species deep supercooled. The two hardiest species, both from the subgenus Padus (P. padus L. and P. virginiana L.), did not supercool and survived -33C with no bud kill. Prunus serotina J.F. Ehrh., also in Padus, did supercool. Prunus nigra Ait., P. americana Marsh, P. fruticosa Pall., and P. besseyi L.H. Bailey had a low minimum hardiness level (MHL), small buds, and a low water content. Exotherms were no longer detectable from the buds of these species after 2 days at -7C and some buds survived -33C. Prunus triloba Lindl. and P. japonica Thunb. were similar to that group, but no buds survived -33C. Prunus davidiana (Carriere) Franch., P. avium L., and P. domestica L. had a relatively high MHL but hardened rapidly when the buds were frozen. Prunus persica (L.) Batsch., P. subhirtella Miq., P. dulcis (Mill) D. A. Webb, and P. emarginata (Dougl. ex Hook) Walp. deep supercooled, had large flower buds and a high MHL, and were killed in the Dec. 1990 freeze. Prunus salicina Lindl., P. hortulana L.H. Bailey, P. armeniaca L., and P. tomentosa Thunb. were in an intermediate group with a moderately low MHL and a moderate rate of hardiness increase while frozen. Prunus dulcis and P. davidiana had a low chilling requirement and bloomed early, whereas P. virginiana, P. fruticosa, P. nigra, and P. domestica had high chilling requirements and bloomed late.

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Japanese plum is widely cultivated in temperate zones since its introduction in California from Japan in the 19th century ( Faust and Surányi, 1999 ). The term japanese plum originally was applied to Prunus salicina but currently does not

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chlorogenic acid-rich plums Food Res. Intl. 37 337 342 10.1016/j.foodres.2004.02.001 Crisosto, C.H. Garner, D. Crisosto, G.M. Bowerman, E. 2004 Increasing ‘Blackamber’ plum ( Prunus salicina Lindell) consumer acceptance Postharvest Biol. Technol. 34 237 244

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in fruit breeding Purdue University Press Lafayette, IN Beppu, K. Komatsu, N. Yamane, H. Yaegaki, H. Yamaguchi, M. Tao, R. Kataoka, I. 2005 S -e-haplotype confers self-compatibility in japanese plum ( Prunus salicina Lindl.) J. Hort. Sci. Biotechnol

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