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Soil applications of dolomitic limestone and P fertilizer before seeding American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium L.) affected root weight (RW) gain during the first 4 years of growth. At the end of each growing season, root size was greatest with the intermediate liming rate and with the high P rate. Lime resulted in positive linear responses in soil pH, K, Ca, and Mg and in root N, P, Ca, and Mg and curvilinear responses in soil Mn and Zn and in root K, Mn, and Zn. Applied P had a positive linear effect on soil Na and on root N, Ca, and Fe and a curvilinear effect on soil P and on root P and Ca. Terminal RW was positively correlated with soil pH, K, Ca, Mg, and Na and with root P, K, Ca, and Mg; RW was negatively correlated with root Mn and Zn. Regression analyses implicated only soil Ca and Na and root Mg and Zn as significant terms in prediction equations,

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Soil-applied dolomitic limestone and fertilizer affected the level of certain root and leaf ginsenosides in 4-year-old American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium L.); however, ginsenoside accumulations in the roots and in the leaves often were not similar. Root and leaf ginsenoside production tended to differ in its response to soil fertility (SF) factors and root tissue nutrient (RN) elements. Leaf ginsenoside production was more often correlated with SF factors and RN elements than that of root ginsenosides, the response of both ginsenoside sources was greater to RN than SF status. Leaf ginsenoside content was positively correlated with the SF factors and RN elements to a greater degree than that of root ginsenosides. Leaf ginsenoside production was more often affected by the same chemical element in the soil and in root tissue than that of root ginsenosides. There was no correlation between the level of any ginsenoside measured in root tissue and the same ginsenoside in leaf tissue.

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Genetic differences among eleven cultivated and eight wild-type populations of North American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium L.) and four cultivated populations of South Korean ginseng (P. ginseng C.A. Meyer) were estimated using RAPD markers. Cultivated P. ginseng population samples were collected from four regions of S. Korea. Cultivated P. quinquefolium population samples were collected from three regions in North America: Wisconsin, the Southeastern Appalachian region of the United States, and Canada. Wild-type P. quinquefolium was collected from three states in the United States: Pennsylvania, Tennessee, and Wisconsin. Evaluation of germplasm with 10 decamer primers resulted in 100 polymorphic bands. Genetic differences among populations indicate heterogeneity. The genetic distance among individuals was estimated using the ratio of discordant bands to total bands scored. Multidimensional scaling of the relationship matrix showed independent clusters corresponding to the distinction of species, geographical region, and wild versus cultivated types. The integrity of the clusters was confirmed using pooled chi-square tests for fragment homogeneity.

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Abstract

Dormant one-year-old roots of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium L.) were exposed to a range of stratification temperatures and times to define limits for these parameters and to quantify their effect on terminating rest when placed in a growing environment. Effective storage temperatures tested ranged from 0° to 9°C. A low percentage of roots produced tops with as few as 30 days of stratification; however, 60 to 90 days were required for 100% emergence. The number of days to emergence, after planting, decreased with increased time in stratification through the maximum storage time of 120 days. The number of days of dormancy (days in stratification + days to emergence) averaged 126 and was relatively constant over the range of effective temperatures and periods of stratification. The minimum predicted period of dormancy was 116 days and was associated with a derived 70 days in storage (1680 hr) at 3.1°. Root growth rate, after emergence, was greatest following 105 days of stratification.

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Abstract

American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium L.) roots have a dormancy period which can be satisfied by exposure to low temperatures of 0° to 10°C for about 100 days. Three-year-old roots of ginseng were weighed, given variable periods (≥ 50 days) of low temperature (5°C), planted in vermiculite in pots, and grown in light or dark at 5°, 10°, 15°, or 20°. After 50 to 100 days of storage at 5°, stem growth occurred at all temperatures except 20°. At this temperature, a minimum of 75 days at 5° was required to satisfy dormancy. Stem growth rate was relatively constant at 5° and 10° but increased with storage time when grown at 15° or 20°; leaf growth rate was affected similarly, except that no leaf growth occurred at 5°. If optimum cold storage and growth requirements were not met, the plants appeared abnormal and had reduced root dry weights. After 100 days of storage, the greatest growth rate was observed at 15° and 10°. Plant growth rate was the least at 5° and 20°.

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Abstract

Single and multiple applications of 2,4-D to American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium L.) with fully expanded leaves during a 3-year period caused no visible injury to foliage or roots. During the final 2 years of the study, percent plant survival was greater with two applications per year than with one, and percent gain in root weight decreased with increased rate of application of the herbicide. Also, terminal weight of roots decreased with increased number of years of herbicide application. Treated plants did not differ from nontreated plants in percent survival, final root weight, or percent gain in root weight. Herbicide residue was not detected (<0.02 ppm) in roots from plants that received multiple applications of the three highest 2,4-D dosages: 0.56, 1.12, or 2.24 kg·ha−1 a.i. Foliar residues were detected in plants treated once or twice per year for 3 years with 0.56 or 1.12 kg·ha−1 a.i. 2,4-D. Chemical name used: (2,4-dichlorophenoxy)acetic acid (2,4-D).

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.A. Reynolds, L.B. Hendel, J.G. 1996 Influence of root age on the concentration of ginsenosides of american ginseng ( Panax quinquefolium ) Can. J. Plant Sci. 76 853 855 10.4141/cjps96-144 Dong, T.T.X. Cui, X.M. Song, Z.H. Zhao, K.J. Ji, Z.N. Lo, C.K. Tsim, K

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