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The effect of harvest period on fresh and dry leaf and root weights and ginsenoside contents of 2-, 3-, and 4-year-old american ginseng (Panax quinquefolium) plants was investigated. Ginseng plants harvested once every 4 weeks from the end of June through September had the highest and lowest fresh and dry leaf weights in June and September, respectively. The trend was reversed in roots, except for 3-year-old roots that exhibited maximum weight at the end of August. Total ginsenoside contents in leaves of 3- and 4-year-old plants increased with the growing season until the end of August, but in 2-year-old plants it increased until the end of September. Total ginsenoside contents in roots peaked at the end of June for 3- and 4-year-old plants.

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Traditionally, American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium L.) seeds are stratified for 18 to 22 months, before seeding, in a sandbox buried outdoors in late August or early September. Uncontrolled fluctuating temperature and moisture levels and the presence of pathogenic organisms in the seed box can cause seeds to sprout prematurely, rot, dry out and die. A study was initiated to shorten the lengthy stratification period, and to increase seed viability and percentage of germination by stratifying seeds indoors under a controlled environment. Seeds were subjected to various periods of warm [15 or 20 °C (59 or 68 °F)] and cold [2 °C (35.6 °F)] temperature stratification regimes in growth chambers. Embryo growth and viability, and seed moisture content were tested periodically during stratification. The best warm regime for embryo development, seed viability and germination after subsequent cold treatment was 15 °C (59 °F). The first “split” seeds, indicating incipient germination, were observed after 3 months of warm [15 °C (59 °F)] and 4 months of cold [2 °C (35.6 °F)] treatment, when average embryo length reached 6 mm (0.24 inch). Greenhouse germination of stratified seeds was as high as 80%. The results from this study indicate that good germination is possible when ginseng seeds are stratified indoors under a controlled environment and seeds can be made to germinate at any time of the year.

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We determined the effect of moderate water stress on the growth of american ginseng (Panax quinquefolium), and on concentrations of six major ginsenosides (Rg1, Re, Rb1, Rc, Rb2, and Rd). Two-year-old “rootlets” (dormant rhizome and storage root) were cultivated in pots, in a cool greenhouse (18.3 ± 2 °C). Pots were watered either every 5 days (control) or every 10 days (stress), repeatedly for 8 days. Soil volumetric water content was measured during the last 10 days of the experiment for both treatments. Leaf water potential, measured on the last day of the experiment, was -0.43 MPa for the control and -0.83 MPa for the stress treatment. Drought stress did not affect above-ground shoot or root dry weight. Initial rootlet fresh weight (covariate) had a significant effect on the concentration of ginsenosides Re, Rb1, Rc, and Rb2. Drought stress increased the concentration of ginsenosides Re, Rb1, and total ginsenoside concentration.

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Siberian ginseng [Eleutherococcus senticosus (Rupr. ex. Maxim.) Maxim] is currently a popular medicinal plant in Eurasia and North America. It has been used by the Chinese for over 2000 years. Recently, imported products of this plant have become available in North America, with a market share of 3.1% of the medicinal herbal industry. Siberian ginseng is harvested from its natural habitat in Russia and northeast China. Overharvesting has resulted in this popular herb approaching endangered species status. Cultivation is the only way to avoid its extinction, and to ensure the correct identity. Siberian ginseng is not a true ginseng (Panax quinquefolium L. or P. ginseng C.A. Meyer), but it has its own bioactive ingredients with unique and proven medicinal values. However, standardization and quality control of the active ingredients in the marketed products, which are mainly imported from China, are needed to avoid mislabeling or adulteration with other herbs.

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011573d Du, X.W. Wills, R.B.K. Stuart, D.L. 2003 Changes in neutral and malonyl ginsenosides in American ginseng ( Panax quinquefolium ) during drying, storage and ethanolic extraction Food Chem. 86 155 159 Faridah, Q.Z. Abdelmageed, A.H.A. Nor, H

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) and ginseng ( Panax quinquefolium ) plants ( Hill and Hausbeck, 2005 ). Mefenoxam is recommended for control of PRR in North Carolina ( Sidebottom and Jones, 2004 ) and has been shown to have mixed effectiveness against P. cinnamomi ( Benson et al

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