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species, the independent variables were analyzed with analysis of variance (ANOVA; Statistical Analysis System Version 9.3; SAS Institute, Cary, NC). For each type of vegetables, EP was calculated as: EP (%) = (no. of emerged seedlings/total no. of seeds

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increasing vine susceptibility to spider mites) and increased rate of organic matter decomposition leading to a decline in soil structure and poorer water penetration ( Gulick et al., 1994 ). On slopes with no floor vegetation, there is an increased risk of

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, and weeds ( López-Aranda et al., 2004 ; Norton, 2004 ). After soil application, it is microbially decomposed and transformed to propylene glycol, a food additive ( Warren, 2004 ). In tomato, sting nematode populations rapidly decreased at 570 L·ha −1

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. 2014 when propagation success of each cutting was determined. All successful cuttings contained numerous healthy leaves within several age categories. Cuttings with no leaves and with decomposing stems were evaluated as dead. All frozen tissues were

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As decomposers, predators, and pollinators, insects play a vital role in ecosystem health, e.g., decomposers help aerate the soil, turning more soil than earthworms, and increasing soil rainwater retention and tillage ( Pimentel, 2002 ). Predatory

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and statistical analysis. This experiment was arranged at each location in a completely randomized design with eight replications (one plant/container) in each treatment (container type). Data were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) using SAS

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before planting but can be placed in a compost pile to decompose in a relatively short time ( Mooney, 2009 ). There are many types of plantable biocontainers. Composted dairy manure containers are made of compressed composted cow manure held together with

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Resins, Atlanta) releases nitrogen by microbial decomposition (not coated). It is completely water soluble and can be blended with other liquid fertilizers and then used in drip irrigation. The manufacturer claims the urea polymers convert to plant

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from the Hammond Northshore Regional Airport weather station (Hammond, LA, USA). Data were analyzed using statistical analysis software (JMP Pro version 17.0.0; SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA) to conduct a one-way analysis of variance on mulch

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chromatography (HPLC) analysis method using ultraviolet-vis at 254 nm, as described in Sharma et al. (2014) and Wimalasiri and Wills (1983) . Statistical analyses Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed using a generalized linear model procedure (SAS 9

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