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Damien Shumbusha, Jean Ndirigwe, Lydia Kankundiye, Anastasie Musabyemungu, Daphrose Gahakwa, Phanuel S. Ndayemeye and Robert O.M. Mwanga

developed through farmer participatory selection using the accelerated breeding scheme ( Grüneberg et al., 2009 ). A total of 8000 true seeds from the polycross described in the subsection, origin, were scarified in concentrated sulfuric acid, germinated in

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Jacob S. Bravo, Thomas Okada Green, James R. Crum, John N. Rogers III, Sasha Kravchenko and Charles A. Silcox

research should investigate dazomet treatments in combination with the removal of the top few inches of soil and plant material, specifically through a soil scarification technique, as well as the effectiveness of multiple applications of dazomet at

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Todd P. West, Samuel L. DeMarais and Chiwon W. Lee

for drying because japanese tree lilac seed does not have a hard seedcoat requiring scarification. Seed moisture content was calculated by the following equation: seed moisture content = [(seed fresh weight – seed dry weight)/seed fresh weight] × 100

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Maria I. Andrade, Abilio Alvaro, Joana Menomussanga, Godwill S. Makunde, José Ricardo, Wolfgang J. Grüneberg, Raúl Eyzaguirre, Jan Low and Rodomiro Ortiz

’, ‘Bita’, ‘Caelan’, and ‘Margarete’). Table 1. Morphological descriptors of nine sweetpotato newly bred cultivars evaluated in Mozambique, 2011 to 2014. z Performance Across Mozambique as a Proxy for Southern Africa True seeds were scarified with

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Konstantinos F. Bertsouklis and Maria Papafotiou

pretreatments; hot water scarification was also tested rather unsuccessfully ( Karam and Al-Salem, 2001 ; Mostafa et al., 2010 ; Tilki and Guner, 2007 ). Concerning seed germination of other Arbutus species, cold stratification was also suggested for the

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Vickie Murphy, Teodoro Clase, Rosa A. Rodríguez-Peña, Francisco Jiménez-Rodríguez, Brett Jestrow, Chad E. Husby and M. Patrick Griffith

with different germination requirements and germination time frames. Yarey palm seeds generally do not require any scarification and germinate within a few months. In contrast, buccaneer palm seeds benefit from endocarp removal ( Riffle et al., 2012

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Benjamin L. Green, Richard W. Harper and Daniel A. Lass

added or removed from the pre-augured hole. The sides of the hole were scarified to facilitate root penetration to the surrounding soil profile and encourage successful tree establishment. The second laborer’s job was to prepare the tree by pruning out

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Susan M. Hawkins, John M. Ruter and Carol D. Robacker

. Seed pods were collected once ripe from May to Aug. 2013. Seeds were extracted from the pods and counted. Seeds were scarified in 0.1 m sulfuric acid for 20 min, rinsed, and soaked for several hours in water to imbibe before being sown in a potting

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Valdinar Ferreira Melo, Edvan Alves Chagas, Raphael Henrique da Silva Siqueira, Olisson Mesquita de Souza, Luís Felipe Paes de Almeida, Diogo Francisco Rossoni, Pollyana Cardoso Chagas and Carlos Abanto-Rodríguez

) (10 for each experiment) at a 0.10-m distance from the trunk at 0.50 m wide × 0.50 m long × 0.50 m deep. Root distribution was visualized on the vertical wall of the trench under the plant canopy. The soil was scarified along the wall, removing a thin

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Manoj G. Kulkarni, Glendon D. Ascough and Johannes Van Staden

. Literature cited Ahmed, A.K. Johnson, K.A. Burchett, M.D. Kenny, B.J. 2006 The effects of heat, smoke, leaching, scarification, temperature and NaCl salinity on the germination of Solanum centrale (the australian bush tomato) Seed Sci. Technol. 34 33 45