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Abstract

Dendranthema pacificum Nakai (Chrysanthemum pacificum Nakai; 2n = l0x = 90 chromosomes), a species native to Japan, was crossed to Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev (C. morifolium Ramat.; 2n = 6x = 54), the florist chrysanthemum, to develop a type with numerous small flowerheads. The first-generation hybrid was fertile, but the flowerheads were too small. In the first backcross to D. grandiflora, the desired type was obtained. The backcross (2n = 7x = 63) was very fertile, despite the odd number of genomes. D. pacificum may also be used as a source of resistance to the serpentine leaf miner (Liriomyza trifolii).

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, there is little information available on ploidy levels of specific cultivars. Pseudogamy, a form of apomixis, has also been implicated as the sole means of reproduction in triploid R. triloba ( McCrea, 1981 ). A greater understanding of reproductive

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, pharmaceutical, and agricultural improvement of plants ( Ascough et al., 2008 ). For instance, increased ploidy level was associated with increased flower size in rhododendrons and intensified flower colors in carnation and cyclamen ( Takamura and Miyajima, 1996

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, 2010 ). Some effects of increasing ploidy level in woody ornamental species include darker green, thicker leaves and increased number of petals per flower in Rosa ( Kermani et al., 2003 ), thicker leaves and larger, more persistent flowers in

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the identification of ploidy level by flow cytometry (FCM) (PAI; Partec, Münster, Germany); Rosa victoriana (2 n = 2 x = 14) was used as a standard plant. Nuclei were extracted from leaves according to Yokoya et al. (2000) . Leaf material from the

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these objectives, progeny of commercial cultivars from self-pollination (SP) and OP were first analyzed for ploidy levels, followed by controlled pollinations among cultivars and breeding lines and ploidy analysis of their progeny. This report presents

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, there have been no reports of successful hybridization between P. lusitanica and P. laurocerasus . We believe this apparent sexual incompatibility is likely due, at least in part, to the difference in ploidy level. Prunus laurocerasus is a 22-ploid

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lantana cultivars that are used in the landscape. Several researchers have attempted to understand the relationships between ploidy level and fruit or seed production in L. camara . Natarajan and Ahuja (1957) suggested that ploidy level would be an

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main factors that affect haploid induction. Tested doses ranged between 25 and 400 Gy with the optimum found to be below 100 Gy. Confirmation of the ploidy level of regenerants was well described by chromosome counting, stomata and chloroplast

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seedlings were untreated and were assumed to be diploid. Ploidy assessment. When seedlings had grown sufficiently to provide 0.3 g leaf tissue (6 to 12 weeks from transfer to the maturation medium), the nuclear DNA contents of treated and control

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