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( Scow et al., 1994 ). Lower soil N content is a common challenge when transitioning from conventional to organic production as soil organic matter and soil microbial biomass can take years to increase, which may explain our lower than expected yields

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organic matter (OM), whereas GMC had almost twice as much OM (88%) compared with the other two composts. Nitrogen was similar between the three composts, but higher compared with peat. Moreover, peat and the composts exhibited differences in relation to

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matter to the soil ( Gugino et al., 2009 ). Both management practices can affect soil microbial activity ( Beare et al., 1997 ; Frey et al., 1999 ; Lupwayi et al., 1998 ; Tu et al., 2006 ). Reduced tillage can slow decomposition of soil organic matter

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associated agrochemicals, erosion of soil/organic matter and adsorbed compounds, as well as weed presence ( Million et al., 2005 ; Wilson et al., 1995 ). Groundcover surfaces common in nursery production include plastics, landscape fabric, and uncovered

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, 2000 ; McGourty, 2004 ; Pardini et al., 2002 ). Cover cropping can also improve soil organic matter, increase nutrient levels, improve soil structure, and increase earthworm populations, resulting in improved soil quality ( Davies et al., 2001

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. Part 4, “Soils and Fertilizers,” covers everything from organic matter, soil-improving crops, manures, soil texture, fertilizer materials, plant analysis, soil tests, application rates from major growing regions in the U.S., and finally nutrient

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High concentration of soluble solids such as sugar is an important element of tomato fruit quality. The sugar or dry matter concentration of tomato fruit varied between cultivars ( Simandle et al., 1966 ), but could be increased by salt or water

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saturated past extracts. Organic matter (OM) was measured through loss on ignition, and nutrients were analyzed in ammonium bicarbonate-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (AB-DTPA) extracts. Multiple samples were mixed together for a single submitted sample

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capacity, nutrient-holding capacity, pH, aeration, and bulk density. Typically, green roof substrates are 80% to 100% mineral and 0% to 20% organic matter, which contribute to water- and nutrient-holding capacities ( Beattie and Berghage, 2004 ). Organic

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, temperature regulation of the root zone and aboveground growing environment, reduced nutrient leaching, altered insect and disease pressures, and in some instances, reduced soil compaction or improved soil organic matter ( Diaz-Perez, 2010 ; Lamont, 1993

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