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then weighed, and the percentage of fruit surface covered with red blush was estimated visually to the nearest 10%. The fruit were then placed in cold storage at 3 ± 2 °C and were removed in early January. After 7 d at 20 °C, the number of pits was

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Abstract

An Instron Universal Testing Machine was modified to measure firmness of blueberry fruit. Each blueberry was compressed between 2 flat surfaces for 1/4 its diameter at 1 cm/minute. Compression curves were linear. Small, green, unripe blueberries were extremely firm, softened appreciably as they ripened from the green to red stages but softened relatively little thereafter. Smaller blueberries tended to be slightly more firm than larger ones. Firmness varied from one harvest to another within a year and from one year to another. The firmness of fruit of some cultivars was almost double that of others. Firmness as measured by the Instron compared well (r = 0.70* and 0.81 *) with field (“chewing” or mastication) scores made by the breeder as part of his regular program. Blueberries dropped upon hard boards softened (bruised) in proportion to the distance of fall. Small increments (10.2 cm or 4-inch) of fall softened blueberries as much as large increments (40.6 cm or 16-inch) as long as the total distance (sum of increments) of fall was constant. Regardless of cultivar, size, ripeness, or initial firmness, the firmness of blueberries after a standard fall (8 drops of 40.6 cm or 16 inches each) can be predicted if their initial firmness (X) is known (Y = −0.590 + 0.627X). Bruised blueberries decayed more than those not bruised. Firmness of blueberries decreased when they were warmed and increased when they were cooled; this effect was a reversible, physical phenomenon.

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globose, and skin color is variable from red stripes to full red over a greenish yellow background. Fruit ripen 2 weeks earlier than ‘Gala’. Leaves and fruits have higher resistance to apple ring moth ( Lithocolletis ringoniella Mats.), apple leaf spot

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’. The fruit is large, 7 to 8 cm in diameter when adequately thinned, and usually very round. Fruit is larger, firmer, and redder than ‘Jefferson’. At maturity, the surface is 70% to 80% bright red with an attractive yellow ground color and little

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/730-nm Skye sensor, respectively, at three positions per plot. Weather was cloudy with little natural radiation and assimilation light was switched on. Expt. III: Manipulating light intensity and red:far-red ratio by application of neutral shading paper

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that may have little effect on fruit quality. On the other hand, the Mexican fruit fly is an internal pest that would require longer heat treatments with hot water or hot air to heat the center of the fruit to desired lethal temperatures. These longer

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The tolerances of strawberry fruit to postharvest CO2 treatments is an important factor in assessing their potential for extended storage and marketing, but little information on variation among cultivars is available. We have assessed differences in responses of seven strawberry cultivars (`Annapolis', `Earliglow', `Kent', `Honeoye', `Cavendish', `Jewel', and `Governor Simcoe') to high-CO2 atmospheres. Fruit were harvested at the orange or white tip stage of ripeness, kept in air, or 20% CO2 (in air), and sampled after 1, 2, or 7 days for analysis of firmness, color, and volatile concentrations. Berries from each cultivar were collected on three separate harvest dates. Flesh firmness measurements of all cultivars tested were higher when treated with high CO2, but the degree of firming was affected by cultivar and assessment time. For example, firmness of `Annapolis', `Earliglow', `Honeoye', and `Jewel' was consistently enhanced by CO2, compared with air, during storage. In contrast, firmness of `Kent' was not affected by treatment after 1 day of storage and benefits were relatively slight at each subsequent removal. Red color development of the fruits was affected by cultivar and treatment period, but not by CO2 treatment. Volatile accumulation varied greatly among cultivars. `Annapolis' for example, appears very tolerant of high-CO2 treatment levels as indicated by low accumulations of ethanol, acetaldehyde, and ethyl acetate in the fruit. In contrast, `Kent' and `Governor Simcoe' accumulated large amounts of these compounds. This study indicates that differences in cultivar responses to CO2 should be considered by growers planning to store fruit under these conditions to extend marketing options. Research supported in part by the North American Strawberry Growers Association.

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early wave of bloom. Petals were red–orange and extended beyond the sepal tips, but petals were not reflexed and stigmas and stamens were not visible. Fruit were not thinned. The 48 fruit that set from these tagged flowers were harvested at maturity (11

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°C and 90% RH. Fruit were removed from ethylene upon reaching the desired stage (in 2–4 d), namely breaker (<10% red coloration), pink (30%–60% red coloration), or light-red ripeness stage (60%–90% red color). At this point, fruits were sorted by size

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yellow green stigmas with 20 to 31 stamens, anthers are purplish red, rich in pollen, and the pistils are the same height as the stamens. Inflorescences are composed of seven to eight flowers and chromosome number is 2 n = 2 x = 34. Fruit. The

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