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A preliminary study suggested light distribution (400-700nm) did not change from terminal bud set (July) to harvest (9/9/88). Therefore, limbs of 5-year-old trees were shaded the last 90 days of the season in 1988 and 7-year-old trees were shaded the last 60 days in 1989 with 30, 63, 95% or no shadecloth. Medium (63%) and heavy (95%) shade decreased fruit weight both years. Fruit soluble solids (SSC) decreased with increasing shade in 1988 but not in 1989 until after 60 days of storage. Fruit peel chlorophyll (chl) declined with time for all treatments. Apples from full sun and heavy shade treatments had the lowest chl and visually appeared the lightest. Evidence from both years suggested there was an optimal light level between 37-70% full sun for maximum fruit color and chl. Link of 7-year-old trees were shaded at intervals, light all season, mid-season and late season. Fruit weight and firmness were not affected by time of shading. SSC was liner for mid-season shaded fruit. Chl was highest for late season shaded fruit but differences evaporated by 90 days of storage.

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Photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), measured at various canopy positions throughout the growing season in 1989 and 1990, was used to explain variation in fruit characteristics of `Delicious' apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) harvested from these positions at 135, 145, 155, and 165 days after full bloom (DAFB). Hours above an average PPFD threshold of 250 μmol·m-2·s-1 (HR250) explained an average of only 2% more variation in fruit characteristics than other PPFD threshold levels or total cumulative photosynthetic photon density (PPD) in each year. Percent of red surface had a positive linear relationship with HR250 on all harvest dates in both years; intercepts increased on each successive harvest. The slopes and R 2 were highest at 135 DAFB and decreased on each successive harvest. Intensity of red pigmentation and soluble solids concentration also increased linearly with HR250, with equivalent slopes and increasing intercepts on each successive harvest. Fruit weight, flesh firmness, length: diameter ratio, and starch index were not consistently affected by any measure of canopy light levels. Except for intensity of redness, relationships developed between fruit characteristics and cumulative late-season PPD during the final 10 weeks before harvest (CPPDLS) had trends similar to the models for HR250 for all harvests in both years. Models developed with instantaneous light measurements were similar to those developed with the more detailed cumulative light measurements.

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Mature `Macspur McIntosh'/MM.106 apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.) trained to the central-leader (CL) tree form were converted to the palmette-leader (PL) tree form in 1987 by removal of east- and west-oriented scaffolds in the upper canopy. Control trees were pruned to maintain the CL form. Dormant pruning in subsequent seasons maintained either tree form. No summer pruning was done. Canopy light levels along horizontal transects 1 m above the soil and vertical transects, both through the center of the canopy, were unaffected by tree form or transect direction. Yields were significantly lower for PL trees in 1987 and 1989, while yield efficiency was reduced in PL trees in all 3 years. Fruit size, trunk cross-sectional area growth, and foliar macronutrient content were unaffected by tree form. Fruit color development in both the upper and lower halves of the canopy was not influenced by tree form during the study.

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Easter lily plants (Lilium longiflorum Thunb.), derived from tissue culture and grown continuously, were subjected to various photoperiod and chilling treatments. Lilies grown with daylength extended either with high-intensity discharge (HID) or incandescent lights flowered in the same number of days, but had more flower buds with HID lamps. Flowering was delayed and plants produced more leaves as photoperiod was reduced from 16 to 12 hours. The numbers of leaves, primary, secondary, and tertiary flowers, and the time to flower were all significantly reduced as the duration of extended lighting was increased from 0 to 6 weeks. As the number of weeks of cooling at 5°C increased from 0 to 5, time to flower was significantly reduced.

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In 1986, an orchard systems trial was planted with `Empire' and `Jonagold' on M.26 rootstock to compare the performance of the Y-trellis training system at a range of spacings and rectangularities. There were four in-row spacings ranging from 90 cm to 3.66 m and four between-row spacings ranging from 3 to 6 m, giving tree densities from 472 trees/ha up to 3588 trees/acre. Rectangularities ranged from 0.83 to 6.67. In several cases, different spacings gave the same tree density, but with different rectangularity. Trees were trained to a Y-shaped trellis with a 60° angle. Scaffold branches were trained to the wires on each side of the Y in a fan-shaped arrangement. At the closest in-row spacing only two scaffolds were allowed per tree, while at the widest in-row spacing up to 12 scaffolds were allowed per tree. At the end of 11 years, tree weight and cumulative yield per tree were negatively correlated to tree density, while light interception and cumulative yield per hectare were positively correlated to tree density. However, the relationship was weakened by differing results with different rectangularities at the same spacing. As rectangularity increased at a given density, tree size, yield, and light interception were reduced. However, at the lower densities, trees failed to completely fill the trellis when rectangularity was low, thus limiting yield per hectare. Fruit red color was reduced at the highest densities and increased with increasing rectangularity.

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Abstract

Ficus benjamina was stored in the dark for 0, 3, 6, 9, or 12 days and then held in a simulated interior environment (SIE) for 12 weeks under 6, 12, or 24 hours/day light duration of either incandescent (INC) or Cool White fluorescent (CWF) lamps at 20 μE m−2s−1 photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Leaf drop was less and plant grade was higher with shorter dark storage periods. Plants lighted for 24 hours/day had less leaf drop and better plant grade than those lighted for shorter durations. Chlorophyll content was greater as light duration increased for plants held under CWF lamps. Plants lighted for 6 hr/day under INC lamps had the lowest chlorophyll content after 12 weeks in the SIE.

Open Access

Abstract

Alternanthra amoena Voss, Coleus × hybridus Voss., Hedra helix L., Pelargonium × hortorum Bailey, Peperomia obtusifolia L.,Pilea cadierei Gagnep. & Guillaum, Pilea ‘Moon Valley’ and Pilea involucrata ‘Panamegia’ Sims were grown under normal photoperiods (ND), short photoperiods (SD) and several night lighting regimes using red, incandescent, or far red light. Lateral branching and cutting production was promoted on P. ‘Moon Valley’ under SD while flowering was inhibited. P. ‘Moon Valley’ and P. involucrata flowered under long days. The remaining plant species produced more cuttings under ND or the night lighting treatments when compared to SD. Cycling P. ‘Moon Valley’ and P. involucrata between SD and day continuation red lighting treatments every 20 days significantly increased cutting production on plants compared to plants grown continuously under SD or ND.

Open Access

Abstract

Fruiting laterals were tagged within the inner and outer canopy zones of the basal, mid, and upper tiers of dormant, mature central-leader ‘Granny Smith’ apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) trees and were classified into pendant (>120°), horizontal (30°-120°), and vertical (0°-30°) types. Transmission of photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) to spur sites on tagged laterals was measured in mid-season and fruits from these sites were harvested at commercial maturity for assessment of fresh weight, soluble solids concentration (SSC), starch pattern index, and background color. Pendant laterals produced fewer, smaller, and greener fruit per flowering spur than horizontal or vertical laterals. Fruit fresh weight and soluble solids concentration increased with increasing height in the canopy and were higher in the outer compared with the inner horizontal canopy position. Background color followed a trend opposite to that of fresh weight and soluble solids concentration, with fruit from the lower inner canopy regions being greenest. Both fresh weight and SSC showed highly positive correlations with the percentage transmission of PPF. Fruit set showed a positive correlation with PPF, although the relationship was weaker than that for fresh weight or SSC. PPF penetration was lower to pendant laterals than to horizontal and vertical laterals and declined from upper to lower and from outer to inner canopy positions. Pendant fruiting laterals received < 15% of PPF, irrespective of location within the canopy.

Open Access
Authors: and

Abstract

Irradiating the all-green Chlorophytum comosum Thunb. with incandescent or red cellophane wrapped fluorescent lamps during the night increased the mean number of stolons formed per plant. A night interruption was more effective in stimulating stolon formation than irradiating the plants prior to sunrise or at sunset. There were no significant differences in stolon numbers formed between the two light sources within an irradiation treatment. Less and less time was required between the advent of subsequent stolons under all treatments during the 25 week experiment. Photoperiod treatments had no effect on time from visible stolons to anthesis. Plants in all treatments formed stolons and flowered.

Open Access

Three separate blocks of mature, nonirrigated trees of `Redskin' peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] on `Lovell' rootstock, all uniformly dormant-pruned to an open center, were summer pruned 43, 31, and 21 days before harvest (DBH) in 1988, 1989, and 1990, respectively, and compared to unpruned controls in respect to light penetration and fruit characteristics. Summer pruning consisted of watersprout removal (WSR), selectively including all shoots more upright than 45° on scaffolds from the crotch to the top of the tree. WSR increased photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) in the center of the fruiting zone of the canopy to four times the level measured in unpruned trees, but only to an average of 16% of above-canopy PPFD. The greatest effect of WSR on PPFD occurred in the center of the tree, increasing light levels from <10% full sun before WSR to 90% full sun following WSR. WSR resulted in higher PPFD in the center of the tree for the remainder of the season. Fruit ground color and red pigmentation were not affected by WSR. WSR increased the percentage of fruit that exceeded 62 mm in diameter and decreased the percentage of fruit < 55 mm in diameter in 1988 and 1990. In 2 of the 3 years, WSR increased flower count per cm shoot length in the fruiting zone of the canopy.

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