Experiments were conducted to determine if ethylene influences chilling injury, as measured by percentage of slices exhibiting water-soaked areas in fresh-cut tomato slices of `Mountain Pride' and `Sunbeam' tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Ethylene concentration in containers without ventilation significantly increased during storage at 5 °C, whereas little or no accumulation of ethylene occurred in containers with one or six perforations. Chilling injury was greatest for slices in containers with six perforations, compared to slices in containers with one perforation, and was over 13-fold greater than that of slices in control containers with no perforations. An experiment was also performed to investigate the effectiveness of including an ethylene absorbent pad in containers on subsequent ethylene accumulation and chilling injury. While ethylene in the no-pad controls increased continually during storage of both `Mountain Pride' and `Sunbeam' tomatoes at 5 °C under modified atmosphere conditions, no increase in accumulation of ethylene was observed in containers containing ethylene absorbent pads throughout storage. The ethylene absorbent pad treatment resulted in a significantly higher percentage of chilling injury compared with the no-pad control. In studies aimed at inhibiting ethylene production using AVG during storage of slices, the concentration of ethylene in control containers (no AVG) remained at elevated levels throughout storage, compared to containers with slices treated with AVG. Chilling injury in slices treated with AVG was 5-fold greater than that of controls. Further, we tested the effect of ethylene pretreatment of slices on subsequent slice shelf life and quality. In slices treated with ethylene (0, 0.1, 1, or 10 μL·L-1) immediately after slicing, ethylene production in nontreated controls was greater than that of all other ethylene pretreatments. However, pretreatment of slices 3 days after slicing resulted in a different pattern of ethylene production during storage. The rate of ethylene production by slices treated with 1 μL·L-1 ethylene 3 days after slicing was greater during storage than any of the other ethylene treatments. With slices pretreated with ethylene, both immediately and 3 days after slicing, the rate of ethylene production tended to show a negative correlation with chilling injury. Chemical name used: 1-aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG).
The development of ethylene preconditioning treatments for kiwifruit have made it possible to deliver ripe kiwifruit to consumers early in the season. We report on how maturity and length of storage time affect the ripening responses of kiwifruit [Actinidia deliciosa (A Chev) Liang et Ferguson cv Hayward] preconditioned with 100 ppm ethylene at 0°C for 24 hours and ripened for 10 days at 20°C. Kiwifruit freshly harvested at weekly intervals continued to soften faster in response to ethylene preconditioning compared to air controls for at least 5 weeks following commercial harvest. In contrast, kiwifruit commercially harvested and stored at 0°C for more than 2 weeks no longer responded to low-temperature ethylene preconditioning. However, kiwifruit stored more that 5 weeks were still responsive to exogenous ethylene and softened faster when exposed to continuous ethylene at either 0 or 20°C. Kiwifruit had relatively high respiration rates 1 days after transferring from 0 to 20°C, which quickly dropped to base levels within 1 day. Fruit stored >1 week at 0°C always had higher initial respiration than freshly harvested fruit on transfer to 20°C, and ethylene preconditioning increased initial respiration of freshly harvested fruit but had less of an effect on initial respiration of stored fruit. Plotting firmness against individual fruit's respiration and ethylene production revealed a distinct rise in respiration and ethylene production only after fruit softened to <6.5 N. Preconditioning fruit at 0°C did not significantly alter the timing of the climacteric respiration or ethylene peaks.
Rhizomes of Oxalis adenophylla Gillies and bulbs of Ipheion uniflorum Raf. were planted and wet- or dry-stored at 5 °C for 0, 6, 10, 14, or 18 weeks, before being placed in a greenhouse. Regardless of moisture regime, foliage emergence and time to flower decreased for both species with increasing duration of cooling. Wet-stored bulbs/rhizomes within a cooling treatment required less time to foliage and flower emergence when compared with the corresponding dry-storage period. About 10 weeks of 5 °C was optimum for both species.
148 POSTER SESSION 17 (Abstr. 120–133) Postharvest Physiology/Storage/Food Science Wednesday, 26 July, 1:00–2:00 p.m.
Five members of the Proteaceae and 13 Australian native cut flower cultivars were stored for 35 days under standard conditions at 1C to assess their ability to withstand long-term storage and transport. Protea cynaroides L., Leucadendron `Silvan Red', Leucospermum `Firewheel', Thryptomene calycina (Lindl.) Stapf., Telopea speciosissima R. Br., and Verticordia grandtiflora Endl. retained a vase life of at least 7 days after 21 days of storage. Leucospermum cordifolium Salisb. ex Knight, Protea neriifoli R. Br., Chamelaucium uncinatum `Alba', C. uncinatum `Purple Pride', Verticordia monadelpha Turcz., Verticordia plumosa (Desf.) Druce, and Verticordia nitens (Lindl.) Schau. suffered a decline in vase life ranging from 31% to 100% after 14 to 21 days of storage. Species of Verticordia and Chamelaucium were particularly susceptible to fungal infection. Anigozanthos pulcherrimus Hook. and the Anigozanthos cultivars Ruby Delight, Bush Harmony, Bush Haze, and Gold Fever all showed a significant reduction in vase life after 14 days of storage compared with unstored controls.
on the effects of storage or germination temperature on germination rates of stonecrop species. Bonde (1965) showed that lanceleaf sedum ( Sedum lanceolatum ) seed germinated at 92.5% using growth chambers set at 18 °C. Widow’s cross sedum ( Sedum
Several intermittent 13C warming treatments were applied to `Primofiori' lemons (Citrus limon Burn) stored at 2 or SC. Fruit stored at 13C were treated with 10%, 2090, or 30% CO2 for 24 hours at weekly intervals. Reduction in decay and physiological disorders was best with two cycles of 2 weeks at 2C and 2 weeks at 13C and relative humidity >95 %. Under this storage condition, soluble solids concentration, pH, titratable acidity, and reducing sugars did not change relative to values at harvest, but the concentration of ascorbic acid increased and that of nonreducing sugars decreased in relation to harvest values. Carbon dioxide treatments did not prevent the development of alternaria (Alternaria citri Ell. & Pierce) rot and red blotch disorder, but effectively prevented the development of membranosis, rind pitting, and oleocellosis.
The virulence of Mucor mucedo (L.) Fr. (the cause of mucor rot) and Botrytis cinerea Pers. (gray mold) on vegetables stored at 13C for 7 days or 1C for 70 days varied with the host and controlled atmosphere (CA). M. mucedo was severely pathogenic at 13C to cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), eggplant (Solarium melongena L. var. esculentum Nees), pepper (Capsicum annum L.), and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), but not to bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). The fungus did not infect carrot (Daucus carota L. var. sativa DC.), celery (Apium graveolens L. var. dulce DC.), onion (Allium cepa L.), or parsnip (Pastinaca sativa L.) at 1C. B. cinerea was virulent on all of these crops at 13 or 1C. The severity of mucor rot and gray mold on eggplant stored at 13C for 14 days was suppressed most in a CA of 7.5% CO + 1.5% O2 and least in 1.5% 02, in comparison with the air control. Similarly, the growth and sporulation of each pathogen on eggplant-extract agar maintained at 13C for 4 or 14 days were suppressed most in 7.5% CO + 1.5% O2; suppression was least in 1.5% O2. The suppression of diseases on eggplant was highly correlated with the suppression of mycelial growth and sporulation of pathogens on agar.
In a germination test with strawberry seed of different ages stored at 40°F, 23-year-old seed germinated as well as 1-year-old seed. Germination was relatively high for all of the seed lots, despite differences in age.
An inexpensive method for accurate control and measurement of fresh air introduction into experimental storage rooms is described.