The effects of root restriction, induced by root restriction bags, was evaluated on `Yoshida' Ponkan mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco). Trees were planted in 0.02-m3 volume root wrap bags (RWBs), which were made from woven polystyrene fiber, or root control bags (RCBs) made from nonwoven UV-stabilized Duon polystyrene fibre with plastic bottoms. A direct soil planted, nonrestricted root treatment (DPC) was included as a control. After 3 years, reductions in height (14% to 29%), canopy volume (66% to 43%), girth (10% to 22%), and leaf area (8% to 12%) were recorded in both of the root restriction treatments. Greater reductions occurred in the RWB treatment. Photosynthesis, transpiration, water potential, and leaf carbohydrate content were not affected by root restriction although soil moisture content was lower in the root restricted treatments. Fruiting efficiency (i.e., number of fruit per unit volume of tree canopy) improved only in the RWB treatment over the control. Total soluble solids and the fruit color index were enhanced by root restriction.
Mebelo Mataa and Shigeto Tominaga
Hava F. Rapoport, Giacomo Costagli and Riccardo Gucci
Water deficit was applied between 4 and 9 weeks after full bloom by withholding irrigation from 3-year-old Olea europaea L. (`Leccino') plants grown in 2 L containers in a greenhouse. At 6, 8, and 22 weeks after full bloom (AFB), fruit were sampled for fresh weight and volume determinations, and then fixed for anatomical studies. Structural observations and measurements were performed on transverse sections at the point of widest fruit diameter using image analysis. Water deficit applied between 4 and 9 weeks AFB produced a significant decrease in predawn leaf water potential, which reached minimum values of -3.1 MPa. The applied water deficit reduced fruit fresh weight and volume at 8 and 22 weeks AFB. Fruit transverse area of the water deficit treatment was 50%, 33%, and 70% of the irrigated one at the 6-, 8-, and 22-week sampling dates, respectively. Mesocarp growth occurred for both irrigated and water deficit plants between 8 and 22 weeks AFB. At 22 weeks AFB differences between treatments were significant for mesocarp transverse area, but not for endocarp area. Mesocarp cell size, indicated by area, was significantly different between treatments at 8 and 22 weeks AFB. However, the mesocarp cell number was similar for both treatments at all times, and most mesocarp cells were produced by 6 weeks AFB. The growth of endocarp area showed the greatest shift in timing in response to the early water deficit. Ninety percent of endocarp growth had occurred by 8 weeks AFB in the irrigated treatment, but only 40% when the deficit irrigation treatment was imposed.
Suat Irmak, Dorota Z. Haman, Ayse Irmak, James W. Jones, Kenneth L. Campbell and Thomas L. Crisman
Two colors (white and black) of a recently introduced irrigation-plant production system [multi-pot box system (MPBS)] for container-grown nurseries were researched and results were compared with those obtained from the sprinkler-irrigated conventional (control) system (CS). Experiments were carried out in summer and fall of 2001 in Gainesville, Fla. Plant growth [growth index (GI), growth rate (GR), and dry matter] and stress parameters [stomatal resistance (rs), crop water stress index (CWSI), plant water potential (PWP), and substrate temperature (ST)] were measured and analyzed for Viburnum odoratissimum (Ker-gawl). In both seasons, plants grown in the white MPBS had significantly higher GI and GR as compared to the plants in the black MPBS and CS. In summer, plants in the white MPBS reached marketable size about 17 days and 86 days earlier than those in the black MPBS and CS, respectively. In fall, they reached marketable size about 25 and 115 days earlier than those plants in the black MPBS and CS, respectively. Plants in the white and black MPBSs showed exponential growth rate in summer with plants in the white MPBS having significantly higher growth rate (greater slope) than the other two treatments. In both seasons, plants in the white MPBS produced the highest amount of dry matter. In general, plants in the white MPBS had lower rs values to vapor transport compared to the other two treatments, and the black MPBS treatment had lower rs values than the CS in both seasons. The CWSI values of the plants in both white and black MPBSs were significantly lower than the CS. In both seasons, ST in the black MPBS and CS exceeded the critical value of 40 °C several times. The ST of >40 °C is often reported to significantly reduce the plant growth and cause root death and/or injury for container-grown plants. Overall, the white MPBS provided a better environment for root development and plant growth under these experimental conditions. Results strongly suggest that there is a potential opportunity of using MPBS for irrigation and production of nursery plants. These important findings suggest that, in practice, producing nursery plants in a shorter period of time by using white MPBS will result in significant savings of energy, water, chemicals, and other inputs and thereby reducing the costs and increasing profits.
Moritz Knoche, Eckhard Grimm, Andreas Winkler, Merianne Alkio and Jürgen Lorenz
more negative ψ S near both pedicel and stylar ends, compared with nonsymptomatic fruit. Because mature european plum does not have significant turgor, fruit water potential is essentially equal to fruit ψ S ( Knoche et al., 2014 ). Thus, it is
Tara Auxt Baugher, Kendall C. Elliott and D. Michael Glenn
Three growth suppression treatments were compared during 1991 to 1993 on `Stayman' apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) trees grown in the T-trellis and the MIA trellis systems. All treatments—root pruning, K-31 fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), and K-31 fescue plus root pruning—suppressed tree growth compared to the nontreated control, but results were inconsistent between years and systems. Sod or sod plus root pruning reduced terminal shoot length in both systems in 2 out of 3 years. Root pruning decreased shoot length in the T-trellis in 1992. Sod decreased trunk cross-sectional area in the T-trellis in 1993. Treatments did not affect 3-year average yield efficiency but did appear to increase biennial bearing. Sod, with or without root pruning, decreased fruit cracking in the T-trellis 69% and 42%, respectively, in 1992, and sod plus root pruning decreased cracking in the MIA trellis 50%. Sod reduced fruit diameter in the T-trellis in 1992. Secondary effects of growth suppression treatments included increased light penetration and improved fruit color. Sod decreased leaf N and Mg and increased leaf P, K, and Cu. The Oct. 1993 stem water potential gradient from root to canopy was more negative in the sod plus root pruning treatment, and the osmotic potential of rootsucker leaves in the combination treatment was greater than in the control, indicating that sod plus root pruning alters the distribution of water within a fruit tree.
Simon Chrétien, André Gosselin and Martine Dorais
In order to improve fruit quality under the Northern climatic growing conditions prevailing in Quebec, Canada (lat. 47°N, long. 71°W), a greenhouse tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Blitz) spring production experiment was conducted using several irrigation regime and electrical conductivity (EC) levels. The irrigation regime treatments were a function of the global solar radiation, with three thresholds applied to each EC treatment. The irrigation thresholds (KJ·m–2) were 1) 468, 2) 540, and 3) 612. Two EC treatments were used: 1) control EC (2.0 to 3.5 mS·cm–1) and 2) 30% higher EC than the control (2.6 to 4.6 mS·cm–1), which was raised by adding NaCl to 12 mmol·L–1. Plant water potential in summer and in the fall and plant growth after 6 months were not affected by irrigation or EC treatments. Raising the EC increased the Na content of reproductive and vegetative parts and decreased the N concentration of the vegetative parts. The highest EC improved fruit quality by reducing the incidence of fruit cracking. Although marketable yields were not affected by EC (P = 0.09) or irrigation regime (P = 0.08) treatments, higher EC during March to September increased (P ≤ 0.01) the proportion of Class 2 fruit by reducing fruit size.
Kevin J. McInnes and James C. Thomas
Development Core Team, 2009 ). Results Expectations. Eq.  can be used to predict the distribution of water storage D with position on the slope after drainage has stopped after irrigation or rainfall and the matric and gravitational water potentials are
Ana Centeno, Pilar Baeza and José Ramón Lissarrague
availability. Some of them estimate volumetric soil water content [time-domain reflectometer (TDR) and neutron probe], while others measure matric water potential/soil moisture tension (tensiometer, gypsum blocks, and granular matrix soil moisture sensor). It
D. Joseph Eakes, Robert D. Wright and John R. Seiler
Alexander Lang and Richard K. Volz
The effects of spur leaf removal on xylem sap flows and calcium accumulation in fruit of apple (Malus ×domestica Borkh. `Royal Gala') were determined 56 to 61 days after full bloom. Fruit calcium concentrations were reduced but fruit size was not influenced by partial spur defoliation at bloom. Apples exchanged xylem sap with the tree in daily cycles of flow reversal. The presence of local spur leaves promoted this exchange by accentuating the xylem sap drawn out of the fruit during the day, requiring more to flow back into the fruit at night to replace it. Calcium concentrations were lower in the xylem sap leaving the fruit than in that entering it. The reduced calcium accumulation in the fruit borne on defoliated spurs can therefore be attributed to the reduced volume of xylem sap exchanged between tree and fruit.