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Yanina Perez Cayo, Steven Sargent, Cecilia do Nascimento Nunes and Vance Whitaker

errors. Mean separations by the Fisher’s least significant difference test at P < 0.05. Fig. 6. Total phenolic content (TPC) of commercial strawberry cultivars and advanced selections obtained on four harvest dates during two consecutive years. ( A

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Desire Djidonou, Xin Zhao, Jeffrey K. Brecht and Kim M. Cordasco

five randomly selected, marketable, and ripe fruit from each treatment per replication were used for measurements of pH, TTA, SSC, vitamin C, lycopene, and β-carotene concentrations, and total phenolic content. To ensure similar ripeness of fruit across

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Esnath T. Hamadziripi, Karen I. Theron, Magdalena Muller and Willem J. Steyn

largest fraction of the total antioxidant capacity of apple fruit ( Lee et al., 2003 ). Total phenolics correlated strongly with total antioxidant activity in the flesh ( r = 0.91) and peel ( r = 0.98) of seven apple cultivars ( Drogoudi et al., 2008

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Renee T. Threlfall, Olivia S. Hines, John R. Clark, Luke R. Howard, Cindi R. Brownmiller, Daniela M. Segantini and Lydia J.R. Lawless

, cyanidin 3-malonylglucoside, and cyanidin 3-dioxalylglucoside) were quantified as cyanidin 3-glucoside (acy) equivalents with total monomeric anthocyanins results expressed as milligrams per 100 g of fresh berry weight. Total phenolics. Total phenolics were

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M. Joseph Stephens, Jessica Scalzo, Peter A. Alspach, Ron A. Beatson and Ann Marie Connor

, total phenolic content, and total anthocyanins content to determine how breeding for high fruit yield affects health properties of red raspberry and ultimately prospects for the breeder to improve both traits. An inheritance study, in the form of a

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Carolyn F. Scagel and Jungmin Lee

analyses. Aqueous extracts were analyzed for concentration of total anthocyanins (ACY) and total phenolics (TP). These extracts were further purified with a Sep-Pak Plus C 18 mini column (Waters Corp., Milford, MA; Lee and Finn, 2007 ) before individual

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Sohrab Davarpanah, Ali Tehranifar, Gholamhossein Davarynejad, Mehdi Aran, Javier Abadía and Reza Khorassani

expressed as maturity index. Four replications per treatment and year were carried out. To determine total phenolic compounds contents in juice, the Folin–Ciocalteu reagent method was used ( Singleton and Rossi, 1965 ). Four replications per treatment and

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M. Elena Garcia, C.R. Rom, J.B. Murphy and K. Kugler

Light is important in the production of phenolic compounds because key enzymes in phenolic biosynthesis are induced by light, and because products of photosynthesis are used in the synthesis of phenolic compounds. It is known that light intensity decreases with increasing depth in apple tree canopies. The objective of this experiment was to determine how leaf position on a limb affects the total foliar phenolic content. Leaves from `Stark Spur Supreme Red Delicious' on C6 and M26 rootstocks were collected on 28 July and 2 Aug. 1996. Each tree was divided into two sides, east and west. Each side was divided into 3 areas; exterior, middle, and interior. From each area, leaves were collected and PAR, SLW, assimilation, total N, and total phenolics were measured. Leaf position on a limb was a significant parameter for all of the measured variables. PAR, SLW, assimilation, total N, and total phenolics were highest in leaves at the exterior of the canopy. The total foliar phenolic content of the exterior canopy leaves was 20% higher than that found in the interior canopy leaves. There was a significant correlation between SLW and total phenolic content/cm2(r 2 = 0.77; P < 0.05). Assimilation may be a limiting factor in phenolics production in apple trees because of the correlation between assimilation and total phenolic content/cm2 (r2=0.56, P < 0.05).

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Justine E. Vanden Heuvel*, Jessica L. Robidoux and Catherine C. Neto

Carbon supply reduction was used to investigate the relationship between total non-structural carbohydrate (TNSC) concentration in the vegetative tissue and the production of phenolic compounds in the fruit of grapevines. Potted, greenhouse-grown DeChaunac vines were partially defoliated on one of three dates (berry set, veraison, or 7 days pre-harvest) during the growing season. Light environment of the fruit clusters was not affected by defoliation. Seven days following defoliation, half of the vines were destructively harvested for carbohydrate analysis, while the remaining vines were kept for fruit analysis at maturity. Defoliation of vines at berry set and veraison significantly reduced TNSC concentration in the leaf tissue. Partial defoliation of vines at berry set reduced total flavonols by 24%, total anthocyanins by 33%, and total phenolics by 13% in the fruit compared to the control vines. At veraison, partial defoliation of vines reduced total flavonols by 8%, anthocyanins by 43%, and did not affect total phenolics. While flavonol and total phenolic content was not affected by defoliation 7 days prior to harvest, total anthocyanins were increased by 39%, although leaf TNSC concentration was not affected. Concentration of total flavonols and anthocyanins were positively correlated with TNSC in the leaves (r = 0.53 and r = 0.73, respectively) while total phenolic content was not correlated with TNSC. These results indicate that development of anthocyanins and flavonols in fruit is linked to carbohydrate availability from vegetative tissues during berry set and veraison.

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Kim E. Hummer

analysis. Ellagic acid was present as free and glycosylated forms and ellagitannins; other reportedly anticarcinogenic compounds were also present. Table 2. Total anthocyanin (ACY), berry count, and total phenolics (TPH) of blueberries, black currants