A 26-μm DCPTA seed treatment for guayule (Parthenium argentatum Gray) was developed. We obtained a 23% increase in germination rate as measured by the coefficient of velocity (C.V.). Greenhouse seedlings grown from DCPTA-treated seeds exhibited a 22% increase in dry weight and a 95% increase in survival rate under water-limiting conditions. In field-grown guayule, multiple foliar applications of 8.2 mm DCPTA increased the total amount of rubber in roots as much as 58% without affecting the rubber content in the stems. Chemical name used: 2-Diethylaminoethyl-3,4-Dichlorophenylether (DCFTA).
Seed treatments, gels, and planters associated with fluid drilling are reviewed in detail. The future of fluid drilling likely lies predominantly in the sowing of primed seeds rather than germinated seeds in the carrier gel. The primed seeds may be hydrated before fluid drilling to enhance germination and seedling emergence. The gel can carry a variety of chemical or biological additives appropriate for the crop and seedbed conditions. The positional advantage resulting from additive incorporation in the fluid-drilling gel represents a more eflicient, cost-effective, and environmentally sound application method than others such as binding or spraying.
Highly educated and demanding customers, complex business structures, rapidly changing technology, greater liability, and strong competition bring unprecedented pressures on the vegetable seed industry. An effective quality system involving all of the business functions (breeding, parent seed maintenance, production, processing, testing, seed treatment, packaging, marketing, and customer service) seems to be inevitable. The future of the seed business belongs to companies that can provide continuous supplies of high-quality seed with necessary support and technical services and can afford investment in a rapidly advancing technology.
Slow and inconsistent germination of cyclamen, Cyclamen persicum Mill., seed appeared to be more related to seed and seedling vigor than to any type of seed dormancy. Pregermination and germination seed treatments such as immersion in hot water, still and flowing water, cool moist storage, alternating temperatures and fungicide treatments were of little value. Treatment with gibberellin (GA) solutions accelerated germination but created an expelled embryo problem. The grower is advised to surface disinfest fully imbibed seed in 5% sodium hypochlorite for 20 sec to 1 min.
Two presowing seed treatments—pregermination and osmoconditioning—were examined for their effects on emergence, seedling growth rate, and yield of ‘UC 82’ tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum mill.). Seeds presoaked in a −5 bar solution of polyethylene glycol-6000 for 7 days prior to planting and fluid-drilled pregerminated seeds had significantly faster emergence rates than the control. There was no treatment effect on total yield, but fluid-drilled seeds which had been presoaked in the osmoticum maintained a developmental advantage over controls throughout the growing season and had a significantly higher percentage of breaker-red fruit at harvest.
Seeds of 2 cultivars of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) were invigorated by presoaking in a −8 bar solution of polyethylene glycol-6000 (240 g/liter H2O) at 15°C for 5 days. Invigorated seed germinated and emerged faster than noninvigorated in the greenhouse and laboratory, but not in the field. In the last field planting, yield from invigorated ‘Yolo Wonder L.’ was significantly greater than the control seed. Various seed treatments (KC1, KNO3, indoleacetic acid and gibberellic acid) in combination with the osmoticum did not affect invigoration.
The growth of several vegetable and field crops in the greenhouse was increased by applications of 1-triacontanol to the foliage, soil, or seed. Neither the seed nor soil treatments increased the yield of crops in the field. However, foliar sprays ranging from 5 to 500 mg/ha significantly increased the marketable yield of 7 of 10 crops tested. The average yield increase was based on comparisons of all the different rates and time of 1-triacontanol applications with untreated controls. The response of tomato, carrot and wheat seed treatments with 1-triacontanol was shown to be positively correlated with temperature at time of germination and early growth.
High seed quality is required to obtain optimal plant stands and to achieve maximum yield potential. Onion seeds are commonly coated and treated with an insecticide and fungicide to control early season insects and diseases. The seed treatments may cause phytotoxicity in standard germination tests, and thus reduce the percent germination of a seed lot. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of seed quality on seed storage, stand establishment and yield. Two seed lots of two long-day onion varieties were pelleted and treated with the seed treatments Trigard and Pro-Gro. Standard germination and saturated salt aging tests were performed on each seed lot, indicating a high and lower quality seed lot for each variety. Aging was conducted by equilibrating pelleted seeds at 35% relative humidity and aging at 25 °C for up to 12 months. Aging decreased germination with time, especially for the lower quality lots. Field studies were conducted in two locations in upstate New York. The plant stand was greater in the high compared to the lower quality lots in both varieties at both locations. Yield was reduced in the lower quality than high quality lot; however, the response differed by variety and location. Overall, the initial seed quality had an impact on seed storagability, stand establishment and yield.
The initial investment of a precision seeder is cost prohibitive to many small vegetable growers. This study was initiated to evaluate the use of a relatively inexpensive bulk seeder to plant cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. Capitata). Cabbage was direct-seeded with a precision seeder or a relatively inexpensive bulk seeder. Treatments with the bulk seeder consisted of blending viable hybrid seed with nonviable, nonhybrid seed at several ratios to reduce hybrid seed cost and optimize plant spacing. Seed ratios represented 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 100% viable seed. Pre-thin plant stands of 30 and 40% hybrid seed treatments were similar to precision-seeded plant stands. Average head size was greatest with 10, 20, and 30% hybrid seed ratios. Marketable yields were similar for all hybrid seed ratios except the 10% ratio. Production costs per acre for the precision seeder were between that of the 40 and 50% ratios. Net income for 40% hybrid seed was similar to that of the precision seeder.
Presowing seed treatments were devised to improve emergence and crop uniformity of two sweet corn (Zea mays L.) cultivars [`Crisp N' Sweet 711' (CNS-711) and `How Sweet It Is' (HSII)] that carry shrunken-2 (sh2) mutant endosperm. The treatments included a fungicide combination, sodium hypochlorite (SH), solid matrix priming (SMP), and SMP combined with SH during treatment (SMPSH). Seed germination was tested in a laboratory cold test. Emergence percentage, emergence rate index (ERI), and seedling dry weight were calculated from field trials. CNS-711, in the cold test and field trials, had a higher germination rate, ERI, final emergence, and seedling dry weight than HSII. In both cultivars, SMPSH significantly improved germination in the cold test and final emergence and ERI in the field trials for HSII compared to nontreated seeds. There was no significant difference between the fungicide and SMPSH treatments regardless of cultivar. These results suggest that the combination of SMP and disinfection with SH can be an alternative seed treatment to fungicides to improve uniformity and stand establishment in sh2 sweet corns.