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Timothy K. Broschat

(turf formulation that contained mostly water soluble N, P, and K or a palm formulation that contained controlled release N, K, and Mg plus water soluble micronutrients) made no difference. The objective of this study was to determine how three woody

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Timothy K. Broschat

-soluble micronutrients and a palm fertilizer that contains large amounts of K, Mg, and soluble micronutrients, and to determine if fertilizer rate is important, both during and after establishment. Materials and methods Trees grown in 10-L polypropylene containers were

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Timothy K. Broschat

at 83.4 g/tree; 4) a palm fertilizer (Nurserymen’s Sure Gro 8–0–12–6Mg plus micronutrients; Nurserymen’s Sure Gro, Vero Beach, FL) applied at 125 g/tree; and 5) the same palm fertilizer applied at 250 g/tree. The turf and palm fertilizer application

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Barbara M. Schmidt

long-term production. One example of this continuum is palm oil (Box 1, Case 2). Palm oil is a renewable resource produced from the fruit pulp of the oil palm ( Elaeis spp.); palm kernel oil is produced from the kernel. Both products are widely used in

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Timothy K. Broschat

Royal palms [Roystonea regia (HBK.) O.F. Cook], coconut palms (Cocos nucifera L. `Malayan Dwarf'), queen palms [Syagrus romanzoffiana (Chamisso) Glassman], and pygmy date palms (Phoenix roebelenii O'Brien) were grown in a rhizotron to determine the patterns of root and shoot growth over a 2-year period. Roots and shoots of all four species of palms grew throughout the year, but both root and shoot growth rates were positively correlated with air and soil temperature for all but the pygmy date palms. Growth of primary roots in all four species was finite for these juvenile palms and lasted for only 5 weeks in royal palms, but ≈7 weeks in the other three species. Elongation of secondary roots lasted for only 9 weeks for coconut palms and less than half of that time for the other three species. Primary root growth rate varied from 16 mm·week-1 for coconut and pygmy date palms to 31 mm·week-1 for royal palms, while secondary root growth rates were close to 10 mm·week-1 for all species. About 25% of the total number of primary roots in these palms grew in contact with the rhizotron window, allowing the prediction of the total root number and length from the sample of roots visible in the rhizotron. Results indicated that there is no obvious season when palms should not be transplanted in southern Florida because of root inactivity.

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Timothy K. Broschat

Five species of tropical ornamental plants—artillery fern (Pilea serpyllacea), pleomele (Dracaena reflexa), fishtail palm (Caryota mitis), areca palm (Dypsis lutescens), and sunshine palm (Veitchia mcdanielsii)—were grown in containers under full sun, 55% shade, or 73% shade. They were fertilized every 6 months with Osmocote Plus 15-9-12 (15N-4P-10K) at rates of 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 g/pot (0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.1, and 1.3 oz/pot). For pleomele and the three palm species, optimum shoot dry weights and color ratings were similar among the three light intensities tested. However, artillery fern grown in full sun required fertilizer rates at least 50% higher for optimum shoot dry weight and color than under 55% or 73% shade. Light intensit × fertilizer rate interactions were highly significant for pilea and fishtail palm color and dry weight and sunshine palm and pleomele color.

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Gustavo H. de A. Teixeira, Valquiria G. Lopes, Luís C. Cunha Júnior and José D.C. Pessoa

Brazil has great biodiversity of plants, and many fructiferous species are rich in anthocyanins ( Alves et al., 2008 ). Among these species, açaí ( Euterpe oleraceae Mart.) and juçara palm trees ( Euterpe edulis Mart.) produce small, deep purple

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Timothy K. Broschat and Kimberly K. Moore

In two experiments, chinese hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis), bamboo palm (Chamaedorea seifrizii), areca palm (Dypsis lutescens), fishtail palm (Caryota mitis), macarthur palm (Ptychosperma macarthurii), shooting star (Pseuderanthemum laxiflorum), downy jasmine (Jasminum multiflorum), plumbago (Plumbago auriculata), alexandra palm (Archontophoenix alexandrae), and foxtail palm (Wodyetia bifurcata) were transplanted into 6.2-L (2-gal) containers. They were fertilized with Osmocote Plus 15N-3.9P-10K (12-to14-month formulation) (Expt. 1) or Nutricote Total 18N-2.6P-6.7K (type 360) (Expt. 2) applied by either top dressing, substrate incorporation, or layering the fertilizer just below the transplanted root ball. Shoot dry weight, plant color, root dry weights in the upper and lower halves of the root ball, and weed shoot dry weight were determined when each species reached marketable size. Optimal fertilizer placement method varied among the species tested. With the exception of areca palm, none of the species tested grew best with incorporated fertilizer. Root dry weights in the lower half of the root ball for chinese hibiscus, bamboo palm, and downy jasmine were greatest when the fertilizer was layered and root dry weights in the upper half of the root ball were greatest for top-dressed chinese hibiscus. Weed growth was lower in pots receiving layered fertilizer for four of the six palm species tested.

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Randy S. Nelson, Esther E. McGinnis and Aaron L.M. Daigh

. The only plants surviving were narrow-leaf small reed, suggesting that plants surviving flooding may not be able to survive drought. Sedge species such as gray’s sedge, palm sedge, pennsylvania sedge, plains oval sedge, porcupine sedge, sprengel

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Hui-Shan Chan, Hui-Ying Chu and Mei-Fang Chen

Saracho, 2013 ; Wang, 2003 ). Representative planar, linear, and amorphous floriculture materials used in the current study were yellow palm, veitch’s screw pine, and tree fern, respectively. Although form shapes of floriculture materials [e.g., blood