Apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) trees are often affected by a severe June fruit drop, which is often correlated with competition phenomena involving fruit nutrition. This research was initiated to determine if June drop in `Gloster'/M.9 apple could be correlated with a diminished nutrient availability in developing seeds and fruit. During the test period [30 to 62 days after full bloom (AFB)], the fruit that abscised had a diameter similar to that reached by persisting fruit 13 days earlier. Biochemical parameters related to nutritional status of fruit were measured when an abscission peak occurred 38 days AFB. Persisting fruit (control) and abscised fruit were compared along with fruit that abscise 13 days later. The cortex tissue obtained from the two kinds of abscised fruit showed a higher level of soluble reducing sugars and sucrose and a lower content of K+, acid hydrolyzable polysaccharides, and protein compared to the control. Further, the Ca2+ content was higher in abscised fruit than in controls of the same age, whereas there was no difference when fruit of the same size were compared. Total amino acid level was similar in control and abscised fruit at the same age, but there was a lower amino acid level in abscised fruit of the same size. Histological analysis of cortex tissue indicated that abscised fruit have larger cells with less evident nuclei and thinner cell walls than controls. Compared to control fruit, abscised fruit showed the same average number of seeds and a severe inhibition of seed growth; seeds from both kinds of abscised fruit had the same or higher levels of the parameters measured. No positive correlations were observed between fruit abscission and nutrient content of seeds or fruit.
are overweight ( St.-Onge et al., 2003 ; Wang, 2001 ). According to the 2005–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, only 31% of adult Americans are at a healthy weight, indicating many children are at risk for becoming overweight as
treatments over four growing seasons: foliar nutritionals ( N ), insecticidal sprays ( I ), the combination of both ( I + N ), vs. control ( C ) trees that received conventional fertilization and pesticide control. Orange juice flavor is a combination of
objective of this study was to characterize variation among 54 accessions from the USDA-ARS collection for potential seed yield and nutritional quality when grown in the eastern United States. Materials and methods For this study, 54 accessions from mothbean
Orange juice is the most popular fruit juice because of its flavor and more notably for nutritional benefits ( De Ancos et al., 2002 ). Florida and California are the largest orange producing states in the U.S., with Florida oranges being mostly
Experiments were performed in 1995 and 1996 at the Mississippi State Univ. Agricultural Experiment Station, Pototoc Ridge, to investigate the effect of Accel and carbaryl sprayed 2 weeks postbloom on fruit set, yield, and plant nutrition of three apple cultivars (Empire, Jon-A-Red, and Braeburn). The treatments consisted of Accel 25 ppm, Accel 50 ppm, Accel 75 ppm, Carbaryl 0.05%, Carbaryl 0.1%, Carbaryl 0.2%, and an unsprayed control. Thinning trials using the two bioregulators conducted over 2 years indicated that Accel and Carbaryl consistently thinned the apple cultivars and increased the yields. Leaf mineral concentrations were affect by the treatments. In 1995, the treatments affected leaf concentrations of N, Ca, and Mg, while in 1996 the treatments affected the leaf contents of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, and Zn, but no copper. The treatments also affected the fruit flesh mineral concentration by increasing the contents of K, P, and Mg in 1996. It can therefore be concluded that, depending on apple cultivar, N content was reduced by the treatments while Ca and Mg were generally increased. Similarly, the fruit flesh contents of Fe, K, P, and Mg were also increased. The two bioregulators therefore thin apples, increase yields, and affect the fruit quality.
The world produces adequate food for everyone, but unequal distribution has created a gap between the countries that produce more food than they consume and those countries with deficit production. About 815 million people suffer from hunger and malnutrition, mostly in the developing world. By 2020, the developing world is expected to face the overwhelming challenge of a 97.5% increase in population; moreover, developing countries will face serious challenges with the trend of a major shift in population from rural to urban areas, where 52% of the people will live in megacities—all asking for more food, land, and infrastructure. According to the World Health Organization, an estimated 334 million children in developing countries are malnourished. In 2020, one out of every four children in these countries will still be malnourished. It is recognized that modern agriculture must diversify production and achieve sustainable higher output to supplement food security. In order to reduce pressure on cereals as well as to improve human nutrition through the consumption of other nutritious crops, diversification in cropping patterns can provide better options. The increased production and consumption of fruits and vegetables, with their wide adaptation and providers of important nutrients (especially vitamins and minerals), offer promise for the future. Fruits and vegetables as food and diet supplements are gaining momentum in most countries. In addition, recent experimental evidence has shown the growing importance of fruits and vegetables in the prevention of noncommunicable diseases. Further, horticulture would play an important role in urban and peri-urban agriculture and development.
Current practices of fertilizer management, potential problems, and paths for fertilizer management research were discussed. Apple nutrition management in the humid southern regions of the U.S. is typically challenged by several factors such as inherently low soil pH, variable soil chemistry, and irregular precipitation. Some literature and personal experiences with orchard replant conditions and fumigation, fertigation, fertilizer delivery system, and time of fertilizer application were reviewed. On replant sites, fumigation and liming significantly improved tree survival and growth in the first 5 years. Fertigation with ammonium nitrate significantly lowered soil pH in the root zone compared to top dress applications. Using calcium nitrate resulted in less pH reduction. Results of studies of autumn application of N fertilizers have been mixed, with reports of no, decreased, or increased effects on fruit set, yield, and growth. Studies with size-controlling rootstocks indicate additional need to study the uptake of Mn and related Mn toxicity. Precocious rootstocks with high early yields have resulted in foliar K levels approaching deficiency within the first 10 years of production. Indications are that high-density orchards may have additional requirements for K fertilizers.
several fruit quality attributes and nutritional status of the kiwifruit cultivar Tsechelidis. Materials and Methods The research was conducted in a commercial kiwifruit [ Actinidia deliciosa (A. chev.) C.F. Liang et A.R. Ferguson var. deliciosa
availability and economics ( Mann, 2015 ). Previously, we investigated how growth and nutrition of blueberry was influenced by altering the ratios of three common substrates, including peat, coir, and douglas fir bark, in media containing 10% perlite, by volume