, and the resulting loss of labor efficiency when re-entry intervals into the treated area must be observed. To overcome the current challenges facing pest control in bedding plants, a more intensive integrated pest management (IPM) system needs to be
budget. Bars with a common letter are not significantly different according to chi-square test at the 10% significance level; IPM = integrated pest management, PA = pesticide application. Table 2. Frequency of written pest management plans on US
enhance fruit quality ( Lee et al., 2010 ). Grafting could potentially become an important part of integrated pest management in vegetable crops in the United States in the near future due to increased pathogen densities, reliance on pathogen susceptible
determine the usefulness of grafting as an economically sound integrated pest management tool for tomato production in the southeastern United States. Materials and Methods Grafting protocol. Grafted transplants were produced in greenhouse
resistance ( Sun et al., 2018 ) in combination with integrated pest management strategies as the most viable option ( Frantz et al., 2004 ). The breeding lines AVPP1932 and AVPP1925 were found to be field-tolerant to the predominant aphid-transmitted viruses
lettuce production. Greenhouse data suggest increased expression or effectiveness of partial resistance with plant growth. Partial resistance may, either alone or as a component of integrated pest management, delay or prevent emergence of resistance
Host-plant nutritional status may affect the incidence and development of western flower thrips (WFT; Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande). Two greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine the responses of WFT population levels on impatiens (Impatiens wallerana Hook.f.) when plants were fertilized with commercially practiced rates of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). Impatiens `Dazzler Violet' were grown with nutrient treatment combinations of 2 N rates (8 and 20 mm) by 2 P rates (0.32 and 1.28 mm). Individual plants grown in thrips-proof cages were inoculated with WFT at 2 or 4 weeks after transplant, in separate experiments, representing vegetative or reproductive stages of plant growth, respectively. Plants were destructively sampled weekly for 4 weeks following inoculation. Plant tissue N and P concentrations were significantly different across treatments: 8 and 20 mm N resulted in 4.9% and 6.3% N in tissue, respectively; 0.32 and 1.28 mm P resulted in 0.37% and 0.77% P in tissue, respectively. Nitrogen rates had no effect on WFT population levels. However, 4 weeks after inoculation with adult female WFT during the vegetative growth stage, plants fertilized with 1.28 mm P had more adult WFT than those fertilized with 0.32 mm P. Feeding damage varied depending on whether plants were inoculated in the vegetative stage with adult WFT or during reproductive growth with immature WFT. Plant size and number of flowers were lower in plants inoculated during the vegetative growth stage with adult WFT but were not affected when inoculation with immature WFT occurred during the reproductive stage, as most WFT were found feeding inside the nectariferous spurs of the flowers. Tissue N was lower in WFT-inoculated plants compared to noninoculated plants in both experiments.
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. plants treated three times with 850 mg·liter-1 of the growth retardant chlormequat chloride (CCC) were less susceptible to infestation with Tetranychus urticae (Koch) than water-treated control plants. The difference in mite numbers was noted within 8 days after releasing mites onto test plants. Mean number of mites per treated plant was 3.7, compared to 30 on nontreated plants. This activity was observed on all treated plants 6 months after applying CCC. Significant differences were observed on treated plants that were defoliated and allowed to produce new foliage before being evaluated. Therefore, surface chemical residues were not responsible for reducing mite infestations on CCC-treated plants.
During the 1978 growing season, data on the number, timing and dosages of pesticide applications were collected in Wayne County, New York from 23 growers not participating in the New York Tree Fruit Program (NYTFP). Thirty-three blocks of apples were matched with 33 similar blocks from growers participating in the NYTFP. Average annual pesticide costs for participants were $48 and $71 per hectare lower than for nonparticipants, for fresh and processing fruit, respectively. No change in quality or yield of fruit was observed.
1 Regional Advisor-Invasive Plants. 2 Area Integrated Pest Management Advisor, Univ. of California Statewide IPM Program. 3 Former Graduate Student. This material is based upon work supported by the Cooperative State Research, Education and