The document Cornell Integrated Crop and Pest Management Guidelines for Commercial Vegetable Production was revised in 1999 to become inclusive and integrative of all aspects of crop and pest management. As an adjunct to the printed publication, additional information was presented in tables at an Internet web site. Links on the web site were made to other sites with more detailed information on specific topics, such as photographs of pests and diagnostic information, soil fertility testing, cover crops, environmental impact of pesticides, pesticide labels, and images, sources, and life cycles of beneficial insects. The revision and web site have proven to be popular with cooperative extension staff and the vegetable industry in New York.
Curtis H. Petzoldt, Stephen Reiners and Michael P. Hoffmann
Andrea B. da Rocha and Ray Hammerschmidt
A major challenge facing horticultural crop production is the need to provide field and postharvest disease control measures that help maintain high quality plant products. Producers and consumers also expect high quality produce with minimal or no pesticide residues and competitive prices. The chemical management of disease is further complicated by the development of fungicide resistance in many important pathogens. Because of these concerns, an alternative or complementary approach is the use of disease resistance inducers that activate the natural defenses of the plant. Induced disease resistance in plants has been studied in many different pathosystems for nearly a century. Resistance to plant disease can be induced systemically by prior infection with pathogens, by certain non-pathogenic microbes that colonize the surface of roots and leaves, or by chemicals. The application of resistance inducers should protect plants through the induction of defenses that are effective against a broad spectrum of pathogens. Over the last few years, a number of materials that could potentially be used as inducers of resistance in horticultural crops have been identified. Some of these materials are already commercially available. Although induced resistance is known to provide a broad spectrum of disease suppression, it may not be a complete solution because variation in the efficacy of disease resistance induction has been observed. The variation in the response may be dependent on the plant species and even cultivars, as well as variability in the spectrum of pathogens that resistance can be induced against. Induction of resistance depends on the activation of biochemical processes that are triggered in the plant, and therefore a lag time between treatment and expression of resistance occurs. This lag effect may limit the practical application of disease resistance inducers. Since the efficacy of the inducers also depends on the part of the plant that was treated, the product delivery (i.e., how the inducers would be applied in order to optimize their action) is another factor to be considered. Some studies have shown that there may be side effects on growth or yield characteristics when certain inducers are used. Understanding the biochemical interactions occurring between plants, pathogens and the inducers will provide information that may be useful for the optimization of this new approach on disease control. Approaches to integrate induced resistance with other management practices need to be investigated as a means to aid the development of sustainable disease management programs that are effective as well as economically and environmentally sound.
David J. Schuster
The silverleaf whitefly (Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring) is an important pest of tomatoes in Florida and elsewhere. Associated with populations of the whitefly is an irregular ripening disorder of fruit characterized by inhibited or incomplete ripening of longitudinal sections of fruit and by an increase in the amount of interior white tissue. Experiments were conducted during the spring and fall tomato production seasons of 1995 and 1996 to elucidate the relationship of nymphal and pupal density with severity of the disorder. Insecticides or insecticide combinations were applied at predetermined densities of whitefly nymphs and pupae and the subsequent severity of the disorder was rated separately for external and internal symptoms on red ripe fruit harvested weekly. Expression of irregular ripening symptoms, especially external symptoms, were correlated positively to the density of whitefly nymphs and pupae (number·10-1 terminal leaflets on the seventh to eighth leaf from the top of a main or lateral stem) increased. Expression of external symptoms tended to be better correlated with whitefly density when symptom severity was rated 1 and 3 weeks after estimating whitefly density for the spring and fall seasons, respectively. Expression of internal symptoms tended to be more consistently correlated with whitefly density when symptom severity was rated 2 and 3 weeks after estimating whitefly density for the spring and fall seasons, respectively.
R. Kasten Dumroese, Robert L. James and David L. Wenny
Inoculum of Douglas fir root diseases caused by the fungi Fusarium and Cylindrocarpon is carried from crop to crop in reused containers. Soaking containers for 90 seconds in 80 °C water removed ≈99% of Fusarium and 100% of Cylindrocarpon inoculum between growing cycles. Overall seedling growth was also improved: seedlings grown in containers soaked between growing cycles were 10% taller and had 20% more biomass than seedlings grown in nonsoaked containers. We obtained a 13% increase in the number of deliverable seedlings from containers soaked in hot water between crops, from the use of copper coated containers, or from both practices combined.
Gerald E. Brust and Karen K. Rane
1 Integrated Pest Management Specialist, Southwest Purdue Agricultural Research Center. 2 Plant Pathologist, Dept. of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue Univ. The cost of publishing this paper was defrayed in part by the payment of page
H.S. Costa, K.L. Robb and C.A. Wilen
We thank T. Pinckard, J. Virzi, S. Parker, K. Stringer, and the Mycotech Corporation for technical assistance. This research was funded in part by the Univ. of California Integrated Pest Management Program. The cost of publishing this paper
Richard E. Durham, John R. Hartman and Monte P. Johnson
A home landscape integrated pest management (IPM) extension program has been initiated in the Univ. of Kentucky College of Agriculture. In order for this program to be effective, activities must integrate aspects of general landscape management with pest management. The main tenets of the project encompass four areas: making wise choices when selecting plants for the landscape; practicing proper planting and transplanting techniques; maintaining the health of the plant in the landscape using proper watering, fertilizing, and pruning techniques; and practicing an integrated approach to managing pests in the landscape. Outreach mechanisms for this project include the preparation and broadcast of radio scripts, the production of educational videos for use by county agents, print material, and addition of a home landscape IPM section to the Univ. of Kentucky IPM web page. Examples of these activities will be presented. The initial emphasis of the program is on woody landscape plants; however, other areas of landscape management, including annuals and perennials, turf, and home fruit and vegetables, will be added as time and funding allow. This outreach program may be the first exposure many people have to IPM principles and thus it will play an important roll in educating the public to integrated pest management practices that are a vital part of modern agriculture production.
Robert J. Hoard and Michael J. Brewer
The Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP) administered by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) was developed to encourage producer adoption of practices that promote resource conservation on lands in agricultural production. Reviewing the 2002 Farm Bill, EQIP rules, and local EQIP structure using Michigan as a case study, producers had ample opportunity to participate in EQIP. Yet past EQIP support of pest, nutrient, and conservation vegetation management was low among six states from 1997 to 2002, averaging 1.1% to 2.7% of total EQIP funds allocated. The past funding pattern and analysis of local resource concern priorities and incentive rates suggested that program modifications were warranted. The Michigan case study showed that participation in the NRCS advisory process, in partnership with commodity representatives and university specialists, was an effective avenue to recommend and obtain local EQIP modifications. After modifications were accepted in Michigan, increases were seen in producer participation in EQIP and in funds committed (about 15%) to adoption of a variety of techniques with pest, nutrient, and conservation vegetation value. This approach of analysis and engagement in the EQIP process is likely to work in other states, given common EQIP structure and governance, past funding patterns, and availability of supporting extension, research, and commodity partners.
As an agroecosystem makes the transition from conventional to organic practices, changes in the pest management tactics used are often apparent. Despite varying degrees of efficacy among tactics, the issue of whether or not numbers of insect and nematode pests and their damage will become more severe in an organic system depends on the specifics of the pests and crops involved. Although many conventional systems rely on reactive strategies to deal with pest problems, an alternative approach is to redesign systems so that plant health is maximized, regardless of pest numbers, although this approach takes planning and time. An abrupt transition from conventional to organic may be risky if pest numbers are high and alternative practices are not yet in place. Hybrid systems, involving decreasing levels of conventional tactics and increasing levels of organic tactics, may be needed before the transitional period begins, in order to bridge the gap and lessen the impact of crop losses during the transitional period. The design of cropping systems with minimal pest impact requires a much more extensive and specific knowledge base than needed for reactive strategies.