Spur-type growth habit, among other factors, is known to reduce vigor in apple trees. High-density orchards can, therefore, be designed with more vigorous rootstocks, which do not require support systems. Trees were planted in a latin square design and trained to modified vertical axis system which, encouraged maximum limb development. Growth response of the spur McIntosh strains; `MacSpur', `Hartenhof', `Stirling', `Chick-a-dee'; and for `Empire' are compared for each of the five rootstocks MM.106, Alnarp 2, MM.111, KSC13, and KSC3. `Empire' on KSC13 grew the largest, the smallest were `Stirling', `Chick-a-dee', and `Empire' on KSC3.
Joseph A. Fiola and Robert J. Lengyen
High-density, annual, strawberry production systems (“plasti-culture”) have shown high productivity under New Jersey conditions; however, cultural practice and variety research is needed to increase profitability. The system includes raised beds, plastic mulch, trickle irrigation, and double-row 12 × 12-inch plant spacing. Polypropylene floating rowcovers were applied in December and removed in early April when flowers were visible under the cover. Treatments included comparisons of plugs and dormant crowns of the cultivars Chandler and Allstar, planted at multiple planting dates, on white or plastic mulch, in “matted-row” (single row at 18-inch spacing; peg runners through plastic) or high-density production systems. The plug plants were superior to dormant crowns. Black plastic was best all planting dates with plugs; `Allstar' performed best on black on the early planting dates, while `Chandler' preferred the white for the early planting dates. Both `Allstar' and `Chandler' had commercially profitable yield, fruit weight, and quality. “Matted-row” system on plastic is high-yielding but labor-intensive. Late-summer plugs on black plastic is best overall.
Mikal E. Saltveit and Mary E. Mangrich
The density of excised 2-cm celery (Apium graveolens L.) petiole segments was highly correlated with a subjective evaluation of pithiness. Loss of density and the appearance of pithiness was stimulated by lengthening the duration of storage, raising the storage temperatures above 0C, and excising petiole segments. Segments excised from the upper two-thirds of the petiole lost less density during storage than segments excised from the bottom third of the petiole. Segments with initial high densities lost slightly less density during storage at 5C for 5 weeks than segments that were initially less dense. The extent of pithiness development varied significantly among six cultivars held at 5C for 2 weeks. Treating whole petioles with 1 μm abscisic acid for 4 days significantly increased density loss. Exposing petiole segments to up to 100 μl·liter-1 ethylene in humidified air for up to 2 weeks at 5C did not significantly change density over air controls. The loss of density and the development of pithiness in lightly processed celery petioles could be reduced by selecting resistant cultivars, monitoring water stress during growth, using only segments excised from the upper two-thirds of the petiole, and selecting segments with initial high densities.
Yaffa L. Grossman and Theodore M. DeJong
Plant dry matter production is proportional to light interception, but fruit production does not always increase with increased light interception. Seasonal daily patterns of light interception by cling peach trees planted in four different planting density/training systems were obtained using a Decagon ceptometer. The High Density V system (1196 trees/ha) intercepted significantly more light than the KAC V and Cordon systems (918 trees/ha). The Vase system (299 trees/ha) intercepted significantly less light than the other systems. Response surfaces using a quadratic model with interactions for time of day and day of year explained 84% to 91% of the variance in the data sets for each training system. Crop yields per acre were greatest for the High Density V, followed by KAC V, Cordon, and Vase, corresponding to the light interception data. A carbon budget model, which incorporated canopy photosynthesis, respiration, and carbon partitioning based on organ growth potentials, was used to simulate seasonal patterns of carbon assimilation, crop dry weights, and individual fruit dry weights.
James P. Gilreath, Bielinski M. Santos, Myriam N. Siham, Paul Vaculin, and Michael Herrington
Previous research has demonstrated stimulation of purple and yellow nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus and C. esculentus) with chloropicrin when applied at rates ranging from 100 to 150 lbs/acre (112 to 168 kg·ha–1) under low or high density polyethylene film mulch. This stimulatory effect has been exploited in research by developing a program of metam application 5 days after application of chloropicrin, thus placing metam in the soil once the tubers have begun to sprout and are most vulnerable. This project was expanded in 2004–05 to include the commercial emulsifiable concentrate formulation of 65% 1,3-dichloropropene and 35% chloropicrin (1,3-D + Pic) and virtually impermeable film mulch as well as high density polyethylene film. The test site was a commercial tomato farm in west central Florida with a heavy infestation of purple nutsedge. Chloropicrin was applied into raised beds through three gas knives, while 1,3-D + Pic and metam potassium were applied in 1 acre inch of water through 2 drip irrigation tubes spaced 10 inches apart and 5 inches from the bed center. Metam was applied 5 days after application of chloropicrin and 1,3-D + Pic. Treatments were applied under both standard high density polyethylene film (Hilex and Bromostop) VIF. Stimulation of nutsedge sprouting and emergence was about the same with either chloropicrin alone or combined with 1,3-D; however, there was some enhancement when applied under VIF. There was a slight improvement in efficacy of metam potassium when applied alone under VIF, contrary to previous results. Application of metam 5 days after application of chloropicrin or 1,3-D + Pic greatly improved nutsedge control over that observed without the subsequent application of metam and VIF improved results to some degree. Producers of drip irrigated crops in Florida can achieve acceptable to excellent nutsedge control using this sequential application technique combined with VIF; however, the addition of a second drip tube on the bed top increases expense by about $125/acre and is not compatible with crops grown with more than a single row on the bed.
Glenn R. Thayer and Preston K. Andrews
Dwarfing rootstocks are essential for developing high-density pear orchards with increased precocity. The graft compatibility of Amelanchier alnifolia, A. x grandiflora, A. canadensis, and A. alnifolia `Thiessen' as a rootstock for `Anjou' pear or as an interstock on `Bartlett' seedling, `Old Home × Farmingdale' and Crataegus rootstocks are being tested. Twenty rootstock and rootstock/interstock combinations were top grafted 27 Jan. 1994. Ten replicates will be planted in pots for each graft combination in March after callusing. Growth of successful graft combinations will be measured every two weeks. Shoot length and diameter and trunk diameter at a designated reference point will be measured. Leaf color will be evaluated periodically using a Minolta colorimeter. At natural leaffall, leaf areas will be measured. Graft compatibility will be evaluated. All data will be analyzed by analysis of variance.
G.H. Neilsen, D. Neilsen, and F. Peryea
Traditionally, broadcast or foliar fertilizer applications sufficed to improve the nutrition of many irrigated, deciduous fruit orchards in western North America. Recent developments, including adoption of low-pressure, micro-irrigation systems and planting at higher densities (especially for apples), have increased interest in controlled application of fertilizers directly with irrigation waters (fertigation). The possibility of using fertigation to synchronize fertilizer application and plant nutrient uptake seems attractive as environmental concerns to minimize leaching of nutrients (especially N) to groundwater increase. Recent fertigation research in western North America will be reviewed and compared to traditional fertilizer application methods to assess the potential of fertigation to overcome inadequate nutrition. Emphasis will be placed on the use of soil solution monitoring to assess changes in soil NPK status. Tree response will be illustrated by studies in high-density orchards where N, P, K, Ca, B, or Zn have been fertigated.
Eric Hanson, Brent Crain, and Joshua Moses
Red raspberry cultivars that produce fruit on current season canes (primocanes) can produce additional fruit the following year on floricanes. The primocane-fruiting raspberries ‘Himbo Top’, ‘Joan J’, and ‘Polka’ were grown organically in high tunnels and pruned to different floricane densities to determine the effects on fruit yield (primocane, floricane, total) and harvest times. Floricane densities were 0, 2.4, or 4.8 canes per meter of row length in 2015, and 0, 4.9, or 9.8 canes per meter in 2016 and 2017. Total yield (floricane plus primocane) was significantly greater with low floricane density (17 t·ha−1) or high density (19 t·ha−1) compared with no floricanes (12 t·ha−1). Floricane density did not affect primocane yield or harvest times. Primocanes of ‘Polka’ were taller when floricanes were present, but primocanes of other cultivars were unaffected. Results indicate that producing fruit on both primocanes and floricanes (double cropping) can improve sustainable overall yields.
Chano H. Kim, Jonq H. Park, In S. Chung, Sung R. Kim, and Seung W. Lee
Secondary metabolite production by plant cell culture has been become of interest because of its commercial value in use. However, cultured plant cells usually yield lower levels of secondary metabolites than those of intact plants. In order to improve the anthocyanin productivity in hairy root culture of Daucus carota, fungal elicitors from 8 species of Fungi were examined. Through the studies of fungal elicitors in this work, it was turned out that fungal elicitors were very effective to improve the yield of anthocyanin. Despite of its low yield of anthocyanin, high density culture of hairy roots is achieved in fluidized-bed bioreactor, Anthocyanin production in fluidized-bed bioreactor with fungal elicitor treatment was increased greatly. We are currently researching more detailed aeration effects and scale-up in air-lift bioreactors. And these studies could provide important data to establish mass production system for secondary metabolites.
W. R. OKIE and D. J. WERNER
In the Southeast spring frosts often kill all or part of the flowers on peach trees. Increased flower bud density is one mechanism that increases the likelihood of enough flowers surviving to produce a crop. Mean buds per node in-North Carolina varied in 1986 from 1.6 for `Harko' to 0.4 for `Topaz'. The effect of environment on bud density was unknown. Therefore, for 3 years we compared the bud density of 25 peach and nectarine cultivars grown in completely randomized designs (4 reps per location, 10 twigs per tree) in Georgia and North Carolina. Genotypie variability was greater than that due to location or year effects. Cultivars selected for high bud density in one location can be expected to have high densities at other locations.