German cherry breeding program that focused on cracking resistance and tree health traits resulting from the high humidity of the region along with fruit size and firmness. Producers’ preferences are greatly affected by their different end markets and
Chengyan Yue, R. Karina Gallardo, James J. Luby, Alicia L. Rihn, James R. McFerson, Vicki McCracken, Nnadozie Oraguzie, Cholani Weebadde, Audrey Sebolt and Amy Iezzoni
Cheryl R. Hampson, Harvey A. Quamme, Frank Kappel and Robert T. Brownlee
The effect of increasing planting density at constant rectangularity on the fruit yield, fruit size, and fruit color of apple [Malus ×sylvestris (L) var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] in three training systems (slender spindle, tall spindle, and Geneva Y trellis) was assessed for 10 years. Five tree densities (from 1125 to 3226 trees/ha) and two cultivars (Royal Gala and Summerland McIntosh) were tested in a fully guarded split-split plot design. Density was the most influential factor. As tree density increased, per-tree yield decreased, but yield per unit area increased. The relation between cumulative yield per ha and tree density was linear at the outset of the trial, but soon became curvilinear, as incremental yield diminished with increasing tree density. The chief advantage of high density planting was a large increase in early fruit yield. In later years, reductions in cumulative yield efficiency, and in fruit color for `Summerland McIntosh', began to appear at the highest density. Training system had no influence on productivity for the first 5 years. During the second half of the trial, fruit yield per tree was greater for the Y trellis than for either spindle form at lower densities but not at higher densities. The slender and tall spindles were similar in nearly all aspects of performance, including yield. `Summerland McIntosh' yielded almost 40% less than `Royal Gala' and seemed more sensitive to the adverse effects of high tree density on fruit color.
George Hochmuth, Osmar Carrijo and Ken Shuler
Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) was grown in southeastern Florida on sandy soils that tested very high in Mehlich-1 P to evaluate the yield response to P fertilization. One location was used in 1995–96, another in 1996–97. Prefertilization soil samples contained 290 (location 1) and 63 (location 2) mg·kg–1 Mehlich-1 P. Both soil test results were interpreted as very high in P, and P fertilizer was not recommended for the crop. Fertilizer treatments at both sites were 0, 25, 50, 100, 150, and 200 kg·ha–1 P. Neither total marketable yield nor yield in any fruit size category was affected by P fertilization in either season. Amounts of cull (undersized or misshapened) fruits increased quadratically with P fertilization in the second season. Whole-leaf P concentrations increased linearly or quadratically with P application, depending on sample periods, and were always above sufficiency values. Although many tomato growers apply P fertilizer irrespective of soil test recommendations, our results showed that added P was not needed on soils testing very high in P. Furthermore, withholding P applications to soils with high P concentrations will minimize potential P pollution of surface water and groundwater.
A.N. Lakso, G.B. Mattii, J.P. Nyrop and S.S. Denning
The hypothesis was tested that effects of late-season European Red Mite (ERM) [Panonychus ulmi (Koch)] injury on apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) fruit development are better explained by carbon physiology than by pest densities. Midseason ERM populations were allowed to develop in mature semi-dwarf `Starkrimson Delicious'/M26 trees with moderately heavy crops, then were controlled with miticides at different mite-day (activity of one mite per leaf for 1 day) levels as estimated by weekly leaf sampling. The range of final mite-days was from 250 to 2100 on individual trees. Seasonal fruit growth patterns were monitored. Diurnal whole-canopy net CO2 exchange rate (NCER) was measured in eight clear flexible balloon whole-canopy chambers on several dates before and after mite infestations. Mite injury reduced fruit growth rates. Leaf and whole-canopy NCER were reduced similarly. Late season fruit growth and final fruit size were correlated with accumulated mite-days, but were better correlated to whole-canopy NCER per fruit. Fruit firmness, color, soluble solids and starch ratings showed no correlation to mite-days. Number of flower clusters per tree and final fruit per tree the following year were not related to accumulated mite-days, but final fruit per tree the following year were better correlated to whole-canopy NCER per fruit. These results generally supported the hypothesis.
Ockert P.J. Stander and Paul J.R. Cronjé
Lovatt, 2009 ). In terms of the previously mentioned problems associated with the current cropping season, a successful reduction of fruit numbers in “on-year” trees could reduce interfruit competition for assimilates, increase final fruit size, and
Caixi Zhang, Kenji Tanabe, Fumio Tamura, Akihiro Itai and Shiping Wang
The aim of this study was to investigate the roles of spur characteristics and carbon partitioning in regulating cultivar differences in fruit size of two late-maturing japanese pear cultivars, `Atago' and `Shinkou'. The study of spur characteristics showed that the two cultivars displayed different patterns in leaf development, flower characteristics, fruit growth, and shoot type. In contrast to `Atago' with dramatically larger fruit, `Shinkou' is a heavily spurred cultivar with a higher total leaf area and leaf number per spur early in fruit growth, less vegetative shoots, and smaller fruit but larger core. No significant differences were obtained in specific leaf weight, leaf thickness, chlorophyll content, and net photosynthesis of mature leaves, and seed number per fruit between the two cultivars. The results of trace experiment with 13C revealed that on a spur basis, there were no significant differences in the amount of 13C assimilate produced by spur leaves on each labeling date except at 190 days after anthesis, however, there were highly significant differences in the amount of 13C allocated to fruit between cultivars. Moreover, a higher amount of 13C assimilates was allocated to `Atago' flesh (or fruit) than that in `Shinkou'. Analysis of relative sink strength (RSS) indicates that the sink strength of fruit was dominant over those of other organs in the spur measured in both cultivars except at the early stage of fruit growth. `Atago' exhibited a greater RSS of fruit and lower losses of 13C for respiration and export than `Shinkou'. These results suggest that the movement of photosynthates into the fruit was determined by sink strength of the fruit rather than the source strength in the two cultivars.
Sarah K. Taber and James W. Olmstead
compatibility with the pollen source used for cross-pollination ( Ehlenfeldt, 2001 ; Gupton, 1984 ; Lang and Danka, 1991 ; White and Clark, 1939 ). Greater fruit size and/or a shorter fruit development period with cross-pollination compared with self
Mark G. Hutton and David T. Handley
-fruited cultivars in 2005, but was ranked among the smaller fruit in 2003 and 2004. Table 4. Mean fruit weight, number of lobes, and fruit size of bell peppers grown 2003–2005 at University of Maine, Highmoor Farm, in Monmouth. z Of the cultivars that were evaluated
Fatih Ali Canli, Murat Sahin, Nurettin Temurtas and Mustafa Pektas
Apricot is a nutritious fruit being cultivated in temperate zones of the world ( Bhat et al., 2013 ). Fruit quality and consumer acceptance of apricot is mostly defined by fruit firmness, size, flavor, and attractiveness. Fruit size and firmness are
Julienne Fanwoua, Pieter de Visser, Ep Heuvelink, Gerco Angenent, Xinyou Yin, Leo Marcelis and Paul Struik
( Pearce et al., 1993 ), increase in air temperature increases fruit growth rate, but final fruit size might be decreased ( Adams et al., 2001 ; Sawhney and Polowick, 1985 ) or unaffected ( Bertin, 2005 ; Van der Ploeg and Heuvelink, 2005 ) as a result of