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maximum photochemical efficiency ( F v / F m ), photochemical yield [Y(II)], and electron transport rate (ETR) were measured with a fluorometer (MINI-PAM-II; Heinz Walz, Effeltrich, Germany) on the two largest leaves of each plant. Leaf F v / F m was

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. III Faust, J.E. Higgins, A. Williams, J. 2004 The Ecke poinsettia manual. Ball Publ., Batavia, IL 10.1016/S0304-4165(89)80016-9 Genty, B. Briatais, J.B. Baker, N.R. 1989 The relationships between the quantum yield of photosynthetic electron transport

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(μmol·m −2 ·s −1 ) and maximum electron-transport rates (μmol·m −2 ·s −1 ) were estimated. Leaf reflectance and transmittance were estimated with a SPAD meter for quantum yield calculations (Model 502 Minolta Camera Inc., Ramsey, NJ). Detailed

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hypoxia conditions, and these parameters can be effective in detecting changes in the mechanisms involved in plant acclimation ( He et al., 2018 ; Shao et al., 2013 ). A low electron transport rate (ETR), photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PSII

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, temperature, light, and CO 2 on leaf and stipule abscission and chlorosis in Philodendron scandens subsp. oxycardium J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 104 876 880 Mohanty, N. Vass, I. Demeter, S. 1989 Copper toxicity affects photosystem II electron transport at the

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efficiencies of PSII reaction centers (Fv/Fm) ( Maxwell and Johnson, 2000 ) between S and NS tomato plants without stress. However, there were significant differences in the quantum yield of photosynthetic electron transport through PSII (ΦPSII) in plants that

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rates at both [O 2 ] are limited by the same biochemical factor (i.e., either the maximum rate of Rubisco carboxylation, V Cmax , or the rate of electron transport, J), and provided that [CO 2 ] remains limiting to A at both [O 2 ]. For stressed plants

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absorbed by green leaves, and efficiently drove electron transport ( Sun et al., 1998 ). Terashima et al. (2009) indicated that green light mixed with strong white light drove photosynthesis more effectively than red light in sunflower leaves. The

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electron transport chains in the chloroplasts can react with O 2 to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). The excess ROS may cause damage to the cell membrane through lipid peroxidation, proteins, and nucleic acids

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actually used for the production of carbohydrates. Leafminer injury in horse chestnut was found to reduce electron transport as well as carbohydrate storage, nut size, and the next year’s yield ( Percival et al., 2011 ). Similar to our findings, A on a

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