The distribution of sugars (sucrose, glucose, and fructose) and related enzymes between the stem and the blossom halves of `Valencia' oranges [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] was determined at three stages of fruit development. The blossom half contained significantly higher concentrations of sugars during later stages of development and maturation (12% and 20%, respectively). Neither the enzyme marker for sucrose synthesis [sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS)] nor enzymes of CO2 fixation (NADP-malic enzyme, PEP carboxylase, and PEP carboxykinase) were significantly different between the halves. Sucrose synthase (SS), the enzymatic marker for sink strength, had significantly higher activity in the blossom half during later stages of fruit development when rapid sugar accumulation takes place. These data suggest that differential distribution of sugars between the stem and the blossom halves of citrus fruit is, in part, the result of differential sink strength.
peel disorders are key factors affecting external fruit quality for fresh consumption. Different postharvest peel disorders have been described in citrus fruit. However, the responsible causes for many of them are not well understood, their incidence
Postharvest pitting of citrus fruit is a recently defined peel disorder that is caused by high-temperature storage (>10°C) of waxed fruit. We examined the anatomy of pitted white grapefruit peel to improve our understanding of this disorder and assist in its diagnosis. Scanning, light, and transmission micrographs showed that postharvest pitting is characterized by the collapse of oil glands. Cells enveloping the oil glands are the cells of primary damage. Oil gland rupture may occur anywhere around the oil gland, but often occurs in regions farthest from the epidermal cells. Adjacent parenchyma cells are damaged as the oil spreads. Epidermal and hypodermal cells are often damaged during severe oil gland collapse. In contrast, chilling injury is characterized by the collapse of epidermal and hypodermal cells. Oil glands are affected only in severe cases of chilling injury. Oleocellosis (oil spotting) is often characterized by the collapse of epidermal and hypodermal cells, but cells enveloping the oil gland are typically not damaged. Physical damage is characterized by damage of epidermal cells, a wound periderm, and presence of secondary pathogens.
With the expected ban on ethylene dibromide fumigation, cold exposure remains the only quarantine treatment for citrus fruit against the Mediterranean fruit fly. Following a cold treatment, ‘Marsh’ grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) developed chilling injury (Cl), mostly in the form of slight peel pitting on 3% to 10% of the fruit depending on the season and on other factors. There was no difference in the incidence of Cl between fruit treated at 0°C for 10 days or at 2.2° for 16 days as regulations require. The cold treatment also enhanced decay development during long-term storage of the fruit at 11°. Mold rots developed on Cl peel pitting, and their incidence increased from 1.7% to 3.5% during a storage period of 12 weeks. The presence of the fungicide Thiabendazole (TBZ) in the wax coating of the fruit reduced the incidence of Cl by more than 50%. Delayed cooling, i.e., keeping the freshly harvested packed fruit for 6 days at 17°C prior to initiation of cold treatment, reduced the incidence of Cl by the same extent. By combining a TBZ treatment with delayed cooling, the susceptibility of grapefruit to Cl can be reduced, and cold treatment can be practiced with a low risk of Cl and subsequent decay development.
Individual seal-packaging has been developed in the last decade as a new technique for postharvest handling of fruit and vegetables. This technique, mainly used with citrus fruit, may extend shelf life, reduce shrinkage, weight loss, the occurrence of various blemishes, and refrigeration costs. Individual seal-packaging helps in securing the beneficial aspects of a water-saturated atmosphere (WSA) and in mitigating its disadvantages. If the sealed fruit is not pretreated against decay, however, it may develop decay faster and have a higher percentage of stem-end rot than nonsealed fruit. The choice of films has been extended, but polyethylene of various densities is the main one used. These films offer an attractive appearance and characteristics, adapted to the needs of both the fruit as well as the machines which have been developed to seal individual fruit automatically. So far, this technique has been tested commercially in Israel, Australia, Florida, California, Arizona, Texas, Italy and Spain, and experiments are under way in other locations.
Preharvest gibberellic acid (GA) applications at 10 ppm in 0.1% L-77 (v/v) surfactant or 20 ppm in 0.05% L-77 (v/v) caused `Marsh' grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) to be significantly more resistant to puncture and significantly delayed yellow color development. There was no difference between the two GA rates and applications in July were not found to be as effective as August or September applications. There was an overall significant increase in peel oil content in flavedo tissue as a result of GA treatment, but no significant difference between GA treatments. Limonin contents in GA-treated grapefruit albedo tissue were generally higher at both GA levels than in control fruit. GA treatments had no effect on juice quality characteristics and there was no difference in taste preference between GA-treated and control fruit. Because citrus fruit are resistant to attack by tephritid fruit flies prior to the occurrence of peel senescence and GA delays peel senescence, GA treatment should provide a biorational addition to existing fruit fly control strategies.
Hot water immersion of citrus fruit is a potential postharvest quarantine treatment for insect disinfestation. Little is known about fruit injury in the temp. ranges/exposure times required to control surface insects. We immersed lemons in water at 25, 50, 52.5 or 55C for 5, 7.5 or 10 min. Fruits were held overnight at 20, 25 or 30C before hot water immersion. Fruits were stored at 10C for 4 wk after treatment. We compared (1) fresh-picked late-season (July-Aug.) coastal “silver” maturity lemons with (2) fresh-picked ripe but green-colored early/mid-season (Oct.) desert lemons and (3) similar desert lemons commercially degreened 7 days with ethylene to attain desirable yellow color prior to heat treatment. Heat injury symptoms were small-large light-dark brown necrotic lesions or discoloration which developed on peel surface within 2-3 wk after treatment. Order of sensitivity to heat was: most sensitive = coastal silver (≥ 90% of fruit injured at 55C/10 min) > degreened desert > green (≥ 34% of fruit injured at 55C/10 min) desert lemons. Up to 50C/5 min could be used on coastal and 52.5C/5 min on desert lemons without appreciable injury. There were no differences between fruit cured overnight at 20, 25 or 30C before heat treatments.
An approved quarantine treatment for Tephritid fruit fly control of citrus fruit requires fruit be held at 0.0-2.2C for 10-22 days, depending on fruit fly species involved and actual temperature attained. However, this treatment causes chilling injury (CI) in California-Arizona desert lemons harvested in late summer or early autumn. We found that temperatures at which lemons are held before cold treatment affects the susceptibility of lemon fruit to CI. Commercially packed lemons obtained from Yuma, AZ packinghouses in Sept.-Nov. 1987 and 1988 were held at 1C for 3 or 6 weeks, or cured for one week at 5, 15 or 30C, or at 15C for one week, followed by 30C for one week, before receiving the 1C cold treatment. Lemons cured one week at 5 or 15C before the cold treatment developed at least 25-30% less CI during 4 weeks peat treatment storage at 10C than noncured fruit. The other curing treatments were not as effective for reducing CI.
Juice quality of `Valencia' sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb.] trees on Carrizo citrange [C. sinensis × Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.] or rough lemon (C. jambhiri Lush.) rootstocks was determined for fruit harvested by canopy quadrant and separated into size categories to ascertain the direct role of rootstock selection on juice soluble solids concentration (SSC) and soluble solids (SS) production per tree of citrus fruit. SS production per fruit and per tree for each size category was calculated. Juice quality was dependent on rootstock selection and fruit size, but independent of canopy quadrant. Fruit from trees on Carrizo citrange had >20% higher SSCs than fruit from trees on rough lemon, even for fruit of the same size. Large fruit accumulated more SS per fruit than smaller fruit, despite lower juice content and SSC. Within rootstocks, SS content per fruit decreased with decreasing fruit size, even though SSC increased. Rootstock effect on juice quality was a direct rather than an indirect one mediated through differences in fruit size. The conventional interpretation of juice quality data that differences in SSC among treatments, e.g., rootstocks or irrigation levels, or fruit size, are due to “dilution” of SS as a result of differences in fruit size and, hence, juice volume, is only partly supported by these data. Rather, accumulation of SS was greater for fruit from trees on Carrizo citrange than rough lemon by 25% to 30%.
Seal packaging of orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck cvs. Valencia and Shamouti], grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf. cv. Marsh) and lemons (Citrus limon Burnt, f. cv. Eureka) with high-density polyethylene (HOPE) film (0.01 mm in thickness) delayed softening and inhibited weight loss and deformation of the fruit more than cooling. Sealed fruit at 20°C and 85% relative humidity (RH) had better appearance and were firmer than non-sealed fruit at their lowest temperature possible without chilling injury and 85–90% RH. HOPE seal-packaging also inhibited chilling injury of grapefruit and lemons stored at 5° and 2°C, respectively. The C02 content of grapefruit was unaffected by seal-packaging, hut it was lower at cooler temperatures. Decay of citrus fruit depended more on the storage temperature than on the type of packaging. However, in storage up to 1 month, no significant difference was found in most experiments in decay percentage between orange, grapefruit, and lemon sealed with HOPE and stored in a packing house (13 to 25°C), and non-sealed fruits, at the lowest temperatures possible without chilling injury of 2, 10 and 14°C, respectively.