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Oscar A. Monje and Bruce Bugbee

Two types of nondestructive chlorophyll meters were compared with a standard, destructive chlorophyll measurement technique. The nondestructive chlorophyll meters were 1) a custom built, single-wavelength meter, and 2) the recently introduced, dual-wavelength, chlorophyll meter from Minolta (model SPAD-502). Data from both meters were closely correlated with destructive measurements of chlorophyll (r2 = 0.90 and 0.93; respectively) for leaves with chlorophyll concentrations ranging from 100 to 600 mg·m-2, but both meters consistently overestimated chlorophyll outside this range. Although the dual-wavelength meter was slightly more accurate than the single-wavelength meter (higher r2), the light-scattering properties of leaf cells and the nonhomogeneous distribution of chlorophyll in leaves appear to limit the ability of all meters to estimate in vivo chlorophyll concentration.

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Jaejoon Kim and David J. Wolyn

senescence was hypothesized to contribute to freezing tolerance and consequently improved longevity and yield. GM showed earlier accumulation of nitrogen and proline in the rhizome and earlier decrease in crown water percentage and fern chlorophyll

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Ritu Dhir, Richard L. Harkess and Guihong Bi

., 2011 ). The newly developing leaves of ivy geranium turn white and lack chlorophyll, are small, and curl upward. Colloquial information and producers’ practices in ivy geranium production indicated heat-induced foliar bleaching could be alleviated using

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J.M. Sarracino, R. Merrit and C.K. Chin

Two foliage plant species, Leea coccinia L. and Leea rubra L., were evaluated for survival and for morphological and physiological changes in response to low light flux. Both species of Leea survived in light as low as that survived by Ficus benjamina L. Following 124 days under simulated interior lighting conditions of 5.7, 2.6, or 0.70 mol·m-2·day-1, L. coccinia, L. rubra, and F. benjamina plants grown in 92% shade had lower total fresh/dry weight, smaller leaf area, and thinner leaves than plants grown in full sun. After 124 days, plants of all three species in 92% shade were shorter, narrower, and had fewer growing points than plants in full sun. After 124 days, plants of L. coccinia grown in 92% shade contained more total chlorophyll, and more chlorophyll a and b, and they had a lower chlorophyll a: b ratio than plants from full sun. Anthocyanin content in L. rubra plants grown in 92% shade was lower than that of plants grown in full sun. Plants of F. benjamina grown in 92% shade contained more total chlorophyll and more chlorophyll a and b than plants grown in full sun.

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Christian M. Baldwin, Haibo Liu, Lambert B. McCarty, Hong Luo, Joe Toler and Steven H. Long

#9840; Taylor), visual turfgrass quality (TQ), clipping yield, chlorophyll concentration, root total nonstructural carbohydrates (TNC), soil bulk density, and water infiltration rates. Canopy and soil (7.6 cm depth) temperatures were recorded after each

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Naoki Yamauchi and Alley E. Watada

Chlorophylls and xanthophylls were monitored in broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Plen.) florets stored in air, air + 10 ppm ethylene, or 10% CO2 + 1% O2 controlled atmosphere (CA) at 15 °C. Chlorophylls a and b, as measured with high-performance liquid chromatography, decreased in florets held in air. The decrease was accelerated by ethylene treatment and suppressed in CA. Chlorophyllide a and pheophorbide a were present in fresh broccoli florets, but the levels decreased significantly in all treatments during storage. The oxidized product of chlorophyll a, 132-hydroxychlorophyll a, did not accumulate. Xanthophylls decreased, but new pigments, suggested to be esterified xanthophylls, formed with yellowing in stored florets. The chlorophyll degradative pathway in broccoli florets was not altered by ethylene or CA and differed from that reported for parsley (Petroselium crisum Nym.) and spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) leaves.

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Pinghai Ding*, Jessica M. Cortell and Leslie H. Fuchigami

Nitrogen is one of the most important nutrition factors affecting grapevine growth performance and berry quality. Leaf pigments contents and leaf areas are the important indicators of grapevine nitrogen status and plant performance. In order to find a efficient way to nondestructively measure leaf nitrogen and pigments status, the SPAD meter, CCM-200 and CM-1000 chlorophyll meter in comparisons with FOSS NIR system were used in measuring leaf nitrogen, leaf chlorophyll, carotenoids, flavonoids and anthocyanins in 7-year-old Pinot Noir grape with different rate of N treatments. The results indicate that the reading of all these meters have a good relationship with leaf N, leaf chlorophyll and leaf area. But the accuracy among these meters was different, in which the accuracy of FOSS NIR is better than that of the SPAD meter, CCM-200 and CM-1000. There is the good relationship between leaf nitrogen contents, leaf area, leaf chlorophyll and carotenoids contents. Flavonoids and anthocyanins have the inverse relationship with leaf N contents and leaf area. FOSS NIR system can be use for nondestructive assessing nitrogen, leaf chlorophyll, carotenoids, flavonoids and anthocyanins whereas the other meters can only used for nondestructive assessing leaf nitrogen and leaf chlorophyll. These results indicate it is possible to use nondestructive spectral methods as the precision viticulture tools to manage vineyards nitrogen fertilization and grapevine performance.

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M. Wilcox, C.A. Sanchez and T.M. Blackmer

Several studies in the midwestem United States have shown that chlorophyll meter readings (Minolta SPAD 502) are useful in determining the N status of corn (Zea Mays L.), and show promise as a tool for the efficient N management of corn. Studies were conducted to evaluate the potential of the `chlorophyll meter for evaluating N deficiencies in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Data for chlorophyll meter readings, midrib nitrate-N, lettuce growth rate, and marketable lettuce yield were collected in five N fertility experiments in 1993 and 1994. Chlorophyll meter readings not only varied among lettuce types (butter, cos, leaf, crisphead), but also among cultivars of the crisphead type. Chlorophyll meter readings were generally poorly correlated to midrib nitrate-N levels and marketable lettuce yield. Lettuce leaves have more color variation than corn leaves, and perhaps this variation in relation to the small sensor size on the SPAD 502 confounded readings. The observation that subtle N deficiencies in lettuce are usually manifested in growth rate reduction rather than abrupt color changes may also limit the usefulness of the chlorophyll meter for lettuce.

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Vincent M. Russo and P. Perkins-Veazie

(PO 4 ), and sulfate (SO 4 ) were determined following methods provided by the manufacturer (anions: QuikChem method 10-510-00-1-A; cations: QuikChem method 10-520-00-1-B). Levels of chlorophyll, carotenoids, and vitamin C in pods were determined

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John M. Ruter and Dewayne L. Ingram

Plants of `Rotundifolia' holly (Ilex crenata Thunb.) were grown for 3 weeks with root zones at 30,34,38, or 42C for 6 hours daily to evaluate the effects of supraoptimal root-zone temperatures on various photosynthetic processes. After 3 weeks, photosynthesis of plants grown with root zones at 38 or 42C was below that of plants grown at 30 or 34C. Chlorophyll and carotenoid levels decreased while leaf soluble protein levels increased as root-zone temperature increased. Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) activity per unit protein and per unit chlorophyll responded quadratically, while RuBisCO activity per unit fresh weight increased linearly in response to increasing root-zone temperature. Results of this study suggest that `Rotundifolia' holly was capable of altering metabolism or redistributing available assimilates to maintain CO2 assimilation rates in response to increasing root-zone temperatures.